Recent 3D-aware GANs rely on volumetric rendering techniques to disentangle the pose and appearance of objects, de facto generating entire 3D volumes rather than single-view 2D images from a latent code. Complex image editing tasks can be performed in standard 2D-based GANs (e.g., StyleGAN models) as manipulation of latent dimensions. However, to the best of our knowledge, similar properties have only been partially explored for 3D-aware GAN models. This work aims to fill this gap by showing the limitations of existing methods and proposing LatentSwap3D, a model-agnostic approach designed to enable attribute editing in the latent space of pre-trained 3D-aware GANs. We first identify the most relevant dimensions in the latent space of the model controlling the targeted attribute by relying on the feature importance ranking of a random forest classifier. Then, to apply the transformation, we swap the top-K most relevant latent dimensions of the image being edited with an image exhibiting the desired attribute. Despite its simplicity, LatentSwap3D provides remarkable semantic edits in a disentangled manner and outperforms alternative approaches both qualitatively and quantitatively. We demonstrate our semantic edit approach on various 3D-aware generative models such as pi-GAN, GIRAFFE, StyleSDF, MVCGAN, EG3D and VolumeGAN, and on diverse datasets, such as FFHQ, AFHQ, Cats, MetFaces, and CompCars. The project page can be found: \url{https://enisimsar.github.io/latentswap3d/}.
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Pretraining has been shown to scale well with compute, data size and data diversity. Multitask learning trains on a mixture of supervised datasets and produces improved performance compared to self-supervised pretraining. Until now, massively multitask learning required simultaneous access to all datasets in the mixture and heavy compute resources that are only available to well-resourced teams. In this paper, we propose ColD Fusion, a method that provides the benefits of multitask learning but leverages distributed computation and requires limited communication and no sharing of data. Consequentially, ColD Fusion can create a synergistic loop, where finetuned models can be recycled to continually improve the pretrained model they are based on. We show that ColD Fusion yields comparable benefits to multitask pretraining by producing a model that (a) attains strong performance on all of the datasets it was multitask trained on and (b) is a better starting point for finetuning on unseen datasets. We find ColD Fusion outperforms RoBERTa and even previous multitask models. Specifically, when training and testing on 35 diverse datasets, ColD Fusion-based model outperforms RoBERTa by 2.45 points in average without any changes to the architecture.
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Weakly-supervised object detection (WSOD) models attempt to leverage image-level annotations in lieu of accurate but costly-to-obtain object localization labels. This oftentimes leads to substandard object detection and localization at inference time. To tackle this issue, we propose D2DF2WOD, a Dual-Domain Fully-to-Weakly Supervised Object Detection framework that leverages synthetic data, annotated with precise object localization, to supplement a natural image target domain, where only image-level labels are available. In its warm-up domain adaptation stage, the model learns a fully-supervised object detector (FSOD) to improve the precision of the object proposals in the target domain, and at the same time learns target-domain-specific and detection-aware proposal features. In its main WSOD stage, a WSOD model is specifically tuned to the target domain. The feature extractor and the object proposal generator of the WSOD model are built upon the fine-tuned FSOD model. We test D2DF2WOD on five dual-domain image benchmarks. The results show that our method results in consistently improved object detection and localization compared with state-of-the-art methods.
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ML-based motion planning is a promising approach to produce agents that exhibit complex behaviors, and automatically adapt to novel environments. In the context of autonomous driving, it is common to treat all available training data equally. However, this approach produces agents that do not perform robustly in safety-critical settings, an issue that cannot be addressed by simply adding more data to the training set - we show that an agent trained using only a 10% subset of the data performs just as well as an agent trained on the entire dataset. We present a method to predict the inherent difficulty of a driving situation given data collected from a fleet of autonomous vehicles deployed on public roads. We then demonstrate that this difficulty score can be used in a zero-shot transfer to generate curricula for an imitation-learning based planning agent. Compared to training on the entire unbiased training dataset, we show that prioritizing difficult driving scenarios both reduces collisions by 15% and increases route adherence by 14% in closed-loop evaluation, all while using only 10% of the training data.
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We propose a learning-based robust predictive control algorithm that compensates for significant uncertainty in the dynamics for a class of discrete-time systems that are nominally linear with an additive nonlinear component. Such systems commonly model the nonlinear effects of an unknown environment on a nominal system. We optimize over a class of nonlinear feedback policies inspired by certainty equivalent "estimate-and-cancel" control laws pioneered in classical adaptive control to achieve significant performance improvements in the presence of uncertainties of large magnitude, a setting in which existing learning-based predictive control algorithms often struggle to guarantee safety. In contrast to previous work in robust adaptive MPC, our approach allows us to take advantage of structure (i.e., the numerical predictions) in the a priori unknown dynamics learned online through function approximation. Our approach also extends typical nonlinear adaptive control methods to systems with state and input constraints even when we cannot directly cancel the additive uncertain function from the dynamics. We apply contemporary statistical estimation techniques to certify the system's safety through persistent constraint satisfaction with high probability. Moreover, we propose using Bayesian meta-learning algorithms that learn calibrated model priors to help satisfy the assumptions of the control design in challenging settings. Finally, we show in simulation that our method can accommodate more significant unknown dynamics terms than existing methods and that the use of Bayesian meta-learning allows us to adapt to the test environments more rapidly.
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3D reconstruction and novel view synthesis of dynamic scenes from collections of single views recently gained increased attention. Existing work shows impressive results for synthetic setups and forward-facing real-world data, but is severely limited in the training speed and angular range for generating novel views. This paper addresses these limitations and proposes a new method for full 360{\deg} novel view synthesis of non-rigidly deforming scenes. At the core of our method are: 1) An efficient deformation module that decouples the processing of spatial and temporal information for acceleration at training and inference time; and 2) A static module representing the canonical scene as a fast hash-encoded neural radiance field. We evaluate the proposed approach on the established synthetic D-NeRF benchmark, that enables efficient reconstruction from a single monocular view per time-frame randomly sampled from a full hemisphere. We refer to this form of inputs as monocularized data. To prove its practicality for real-world scenarios, we recorded twelve challenging sequences with human actors by sampling single frames from a synchronized multi-view rig. In both cases, our method is trained significantly faster than previous methods (minutes instead of days) while achieving higher visual accuracy for generated novel views. Our source code and data is available at our project page https://graphics.tu-bs.de/publications/kappel2022fast.
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We study the compute-optimal trade-off between model and training data set sizes for large neural networks. Our result suggests a linear relation similar to that supported by the empirical analysis of Chinchilla. While that work studies transformer-based large language models trained on the MassiveText corpus (gopher), as a starting point for development of a mathematical theory, we focus on a simpler learning model and data generating process, each based on a neural network with a sigmoidal output unit and single hidden layer of ReLU activation units. We establish an upper bound on the minimal information-theoretically achievable expected error as a function of model and data set sizes. We then derive allocations of computation that minimize this bound. We present empirical results which suggest that this approximation correctly identifies an asymptotic linear compute-optimal scaling. This approximation can also generate new insights. Among other things, it suggests that, as the input space dimension or latent space complexity grows, as might be the case for example if a longer history of tokens is taken as input to a language model, a larger fraction of the compute budget should be allocated to growing the learning model rather than training data set.
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This white paper lays out a vision of research and development in the field of artificial intelligence for the next decade (and beyond). Its denouement is a cyber-physical ecosystem of natural and synthetic sense-making, in which humans are integral participants$\unicode{x2014}$what we call ''shared intelligence''. This vision is premised on active inference, a formulation of adaptive behavior that can be read as a physics of intelligence, and which inherits from the physics of self-organization. In this context, we understand intelligence as the capacity to accumulate evidence for a generative model of one's sensed world$\unicode{x2014}$also known as self-evidencing. Formally, this corresponds to maximizing (Bayesian) model evidence, via belief updating over several scales: i.e., inference, learning, and model selection. Operationally, this self-evidencing can be realized via (variational) message passing or belief propagation on a factor graph. Crucially, active inference foregrounds an existential imperative of intelligent systems; namely, curiosity or the resolution of uncertainty. This same imperative underwrites belief sharing in ensembles of agents, in which certain aspects (i.e., factors) of each agent's generative world model provide a common ground or frame of reference. Active inference plays a foundational role in this ecology of belief sharing$\unicode{x2014}$leading to a formal account of collective intelligence that rests on shared narratives and goals. We also consider the kinds of communication protocols that must be developed to enable such an ecosystem of intelligences and motivate the development of a shared hyper-spatial modeling language and transaction protocol, as a first$\unicode{x2014}$and key$\unicode{x2014}$step towards such an ecology.
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Human Activity Recognition (HAR) using on-body devices identifies specific human actions in unconstrained environments. HAR is challenging due to the inter and intra-variance of human movements; moreover, annotated datasets from on-body devices are scarce. This problem is mainly due to the difficulty of data creation, i.e., recording, expensive annotation, and lack of standard definitions of human activities. Previous works demonstrated that transfer learning is a good strategy for addressing scenarios with scarce data. However, the scarcity of annotated on-body device datasets remains. This paper proposes using datasets intended for human-pose estimation as a source for transfer learning; specifically, it deploys sequences of annotated pixel coordinates of human joints from video datasets for HAR and human pose estimation. We pre-train a deep architecture on four benchmark video-based source datasets. Finally, an evaluation is carried out on three on-body device datasets improving HAR performance.
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Commonly adopted in the manufacturing and aerospace sectors, digital twin (DT) platforms are increasingly seen as a promising paradigm to control, monitor, and analyze software-based, "open", communication systems. Notably, DT platforms provide a sandbox in which to test artificial intelligence (AI) solutions for communication systems, potentially reducing the need to collect data and test algorithms in the field, i.e., on the physical twin (PT). A key challenge in the deployment of DT systems is to ensure that virtual control optimization, monitoring, and analysis at the DT are safe and reliable, avoiding incorrect decisions caused by "model exploitation". To address this challenge, this paper presents a general Bayesian framework with the aim of quantifying and accounting for model uncertainty at the DT that is caused by limitations in the amount and quality of data available at the DT from the PT. In the proposed framework, the DT builds a Bayesian model of the communication system, which is leveraged to enable core DT functionalities such as control via multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL), monitoring of the PT for anomaly detection, prediction, data-collection optimization, and counterfactual analysis. To exemplify the application of the proposed framework, we specifically investigate a case-study system encompassing multiple sensing devices that report to a common receiver. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed Bayesian framework as compared to standard frequentist model-based solutions.
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Iterative text revision improves text quality by fixing grammatical errors, rephrasing for better readability or contextual appropriateness, or reorganizing sentence structures throughout a document. Most recent research has focused on understanding and classifying different types of edits in the iterative revision process from human-written text instead of building accurate and robust systems for iterative text revision. In this work, we aim to build an end-to-end text revision system that can iteratively generate helpful edits by explicitly detecting editable spans (where-to-edit) with their corresponding edit intents and then instructing a revision model to revise the detected edit spans. Leveraging datasets from other related text editing NLP tasks, combined with the specification of editable spans, leads our system to more accurately model the process of iterative text refinement, as evidenced by empirical results and human evaluations. Our system significantly outperforms previous baselines on our text revision tasks and other standard text revision tasks, including grammatical error correction, text simplification, sentence fusion, and style transfer. Through extensive qualitative and quantitative analysis, we make vital connections between edit intentions and writing quality, and better computational modeling of iterative text revisions.
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Existing language models (LMs) predict tokens with a softmax over a finite vocabulary, which can make it difficult to predict rare tokens or phrases. We introduce NPM, the first nonparametric masked language model that replaces this softmax with a nonparametric distribution over every phrase in a reference corpus. We show that NPM can be efficiently trained with a contrastive objective and an in-batch approximation to full corpus retrieval. Zero-shot evaluation on 9 closed-set tasks and 7 open-set tasks demonstrates that NPM outperforms significantly larger parametric models, either with or without a retrieve-and-generate approach. It is particularly better on dealing with rare patterns (word senses or facts), and predicting rare or nearly unseen words (e.g., non-Latin script). We release the model and code at github.com/facebookresearch/NPM.
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Cloud computing holds the promise of reduced costs through economies of scale. To realize this promise, cloud computing vendors typically solve sequential resource allocation problems, where customer workloads are packed on shared hardware. Virtual machines (VM) form the foundation of modern cloud computing as they help logically abstract user compute from shared physical infrastructure. Traditionally, VM packing problems are solved by predicting demand, followed by a Model Predictive Control (MPC) optimization over a future horizon. We introduce an approximate formulation of an industrial VM packing problem as an MILP with soft-constraints parameterized by the predictions. Recently, predict-and-optimize (PnO) was proposed for end-to-end training of prediction models by back-propagating the cost of decisions through the optimization problem. But, PnO is unable to scale to the large prediction horizons prevalent in cloud computing. To tackle this issue, we propose the Predict-and-Critic (PnC) framework that outperforms PnO with just a two-step horizon by leveraging reinforcement learning. PnC jointly trains a prediction model and a terminal Q function that approximates cost-to-go over a long horizon, by back-propagating the cost of decisions through the optimization problem \emph{and from the future}. The terminal Q function allows us to solve a much smaller two-step horizon optimization problem than the multi-step horizon necessary in PnO. We evaluate PnO and the PnC framework on two datasets, three workloads, and with disturbances not modeled in the optimization problem. We find that PnC significantly improves decision quality over PnO, even when the optimization problem is not a perfect representation of reality. We also find that hardening the soft constraints of the MILP and back-propagating through the constraints improves decision quality for both PnO and PnC.
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Deep neural networks have emerged as the workhorse for a large section of robotics and control applications, especially as models for dynamical systems. Such data-driven models are in turn used for designing and verifying autonomous systems. This is particularly useful in modeling medical systems where data can be leveraged to individualize treatment. In safety-critical applications, it is important that the data-driven model is conformant to established knowledge from the natural sciences. Such knowledge is often available or can often be distilled into a (possibly black-box) model $M$. For instance, the unicycle model for an F1 racing car. In this light, we consider the following problem - given a model $M$ and state transition dataset, we wish to best approximate the system model while being bounded distance away from $M$. We propose a method to guarantee this conformance. Our first step is to distill the dataset into few representative samples called memories, using the idea of a growing neural gas. Next, using these memories we partition the state space into disjoint subsets and compute bounds that should be respected by the neural network, when the input is drawn from a particular subset. This serves as a symbolic wrapper for guaranteed conformance. We argue theoretically that this only leads to bounded increase in approximation error; which can be controlled by increasing the number of memories. We experimentally show that on three case studies (Car Model, Drones, and Artificial Pancreas), our constrained neurosymbolic models conform to specified $M$ models (each encoding various constraints) with order-of-magnitude improvements compared to the augmented Lagrangian and vanilla training methods.
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One of the major challenges in Deep Reinforcement Learning for control is the need for extensive training to learn the policy. Motivated by this, we present the design of the Control-Tutored Deep Q-Networks (CT-DQN) algorithm, a Deep Reinforcement Learning algorithm that leverages a control tutor, i.e., an exogenous control law, to reduce learning time. The tutor can be designed using an approximate model of the system, without any assumption about the knowledge of the system's dynamics. There is no expectation that it will be able to achieve the control objective if used stand-alone. During learning, the tutor occasionally suggests an action, thus partially guiding exploration. We validate our approach on three scenarios from OpenAI Gym: the inverted pendulum, lunar lander, and car racing. We demonstrate that CT-DQN is able to achieve better or equivalent data efficiency with respect to the classic function approximation solutions.
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Neural information retrieval (IR) systems have progressed rapidly in recent years, in large part due to the release of publicly available benchmarking tasks. Unfortunately, some dimensions of this progress are illusory: the majority of the popular IR benchmarks today focus exclusively on downstream task accuracy and thus conceal the costs incurred by systems that trade away efficiency for quality. Latency, hardware cost, and other efficiency considerations are paramount to the deployment of IR systems in user-facing settings. We propose that IR benchmarks structure their evaluation methodology to include not only metrics of accuracy, but also efficiency considerations such as a query latency and the corresponding cost budget for a reproducible hardware setting. For the popular IR benchmarks MS MARCO and XOR-TyDi, we show how the best choice of IR system varies according to how these efficiency considerations are chosen and weighed. We hope that future benchmarks will adopt these guidelines toward more holistic IR evaluation.
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Novel view synthesis and 3D modeling using implicit neural field representation are shown to be very effective for calibrated multi-view cameras. Such representations are known to benefit from additional geometric and semantic supervision. Most existing methods that exploit additional supervision require dense pixel-wise labels or localized scene priors. These methods cannot benefit from high-level vague scene priors provided in terms of scenes' descriptions. In this work, we aim to leverage the geometric prior of Manhattan scenes to improve the implicit neural radiance field representations. More precisely, we assume that only the knowledge of the scene (under investigation) being Manhattan is known - with no additional information whatsoever - with an unknown Manhattan coordinate frame. Such high-level prior is then used to self-supervise the surface normals derived explicitly in the implicit neural fields. Our modeling allows us to group the derived normals, followed by exploiting their orthogonality constraints for self-supervision. Our exhaustive experiments on datasets of diverse indoor scenes demonstrate the significant benefit of the proposed method over the established baselines.
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Learning-based image compression has improved to a level where it can outperform traditional image codecs such as HEVC and VVC in terms of coding performance. In addition to good compression performance, device interoperability is essential for a compression codec to be deployed, i.e., encoding and decoding on different CPUs or GPUs should be error-free and with negligible performance reduction. In this paper, we present a method to solve the device interoperability problem of a state-of-the-art image compression network. We implement quantization to entropy networks which output entropy parameters. We suggest a simple method which can ensure cross-platform encoding and decoding, and can be implemented quickly with minor performance deviation, of 0.3% BD-rate, from floating point model results.
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Large language models that are capable of zero or few-shot prompting approaches have given rise to the new research area of prompt engineering. Recent advances showed that for example Chain-of-Thought (CoT) prompts can improve arithmetic or common sense tasks significantly. We explore how such approaches fair with legal reasoning tasks and take the COLIEE entailment task based on the Japanese Bar exam for testing zero-shot/few-shot and fine-tuning approaches. Our findings show that while CoT prompting and fine-tuning with explanations approaches show improvements, the best results are produced by prompts that are derived from specific legal reasoning techniques such as IRAC (Issue, Rule, Application, Conclusion). Based on our experiments we improve the 2021 best result from 0.7037 accuracy to 0.8148 accuracy and beat the 2022 best system of 0.6789 accuracy with an accuracy of 0.7431.
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In unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA), a model trained on source data (e.g. synthetic) is adapted to target data (e.g. real-world) without access to target annotation. Most previous UDA methods struggle with classes that have a similar visual appearance on the target domain as no ground truth is available to learn the slight appearance differences. To address this problem, we propose a Masked Image Consistency (MIC) module to enhance UDA by learning spatial context relations of the target domain as additional clues for robust visual recognition. MIC enforces the consistency between predictions of masked target images, where random patches are withheld, and pseudo-labels that are generated based on the complete image by an exponential moving average teacher. To minimize the consistency loss, the network has to learn to infer the predictions of the masked regions from their context. Due to its simple and universal concept, MIC can be integrated into various UDA methods across different visual recognition tasks such as image classification, semantic segmentation, and object detection. MIC significantly improves the state-of-the-art performance across the different recognition tasks for synthetic-to-real, day-to-nighttime, and clear-to-adverse-weather UDA. For instance, MIC achieves an unprecedented UDA performance of 75.9 mIoU and 92.8% on GTA-to-Cityscapes and VisDA-2017, respectively, which corresponds to an improvement of +2.1 and +3.0 percent points over the previous state of the art. The implementation is available at https://github.com/lhoyer/MIC.
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We study the expressibility and learnability of convex optimization solution functions and their multi-layer architectural extension. The main results are: \emph{(1)} the class of solution functions of linear programming (LP) and quadratic programming (QP) is a universal approximant for the $C^k$ smooth model class or some restricted Sobolev space, and we characterize the rate-distortion, \emph{(2)} the approximation power is investigated through a viewpoint of regression error, where information about the target function is provided in terms of data observations, \emph{(3)} compositionality in the form of a deep architecture with optimization as a layer is shown to reconstruct some basic functions used in numerical analysis without error, which implies that \emph{(4)} a substantial reduction in rate-distortion can be achieved with a universal network architecture, and \emph{(5)} we discuss the statistical bounds of empirical covering numbers for LP/QP, as well as a generic optimization problem (possibly nonconvex) by exploiting tame geometry. Our results provide the \emph{first rigorous analysis of the approximation and learning-theoretic properties of solution functions} with implications for algorithmic design and performance guarantees.
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Our goal is to reconstruct tomographic images with few measurements and a low signal-to-noise ratio. In clinical imaging, this helps to improve patient comfort and reduce radiation exposure. As quantum computing advances, we propose to use an adiabatic quantum computer and associated hybrid methods to solve the reconstruction problem. Tomographic reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem. We test our reconstruction technique for image size, noise content, and underdetermination of the measured projection data. We then present the reconstructed binary and integer-valued images of up to 32 by 32 pixels. The demonstrated method competes with traditional reconstruction algorithms and is superior in terms of robustness to noise and reconstructions from few projections. We postulate that hybrid quantum computing will soon reach maturity for real applications in tomographic reconstruction. Finally, we point out the current limitations regarding the problem size and interpretability of the algorithm.
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Gaussian Process regression is a kernel method successfully adopted in many real-life applications. Recently, there is a growing interest on extending this method to non-Euclidean input spaces, like the one considered in this paper, consisting of probability measures. Although a Positive Definite kernel can be defined by using a suitable distance -- the Wasserstein distance -- the common procedure for learning the Gaussian Process model can fail due to numerical issues, arising earlier and more frequently than in the case of an Euclidean input space and, as demonstrated in this paper, that cannot be avoided by adding artificial noise (nugget effect) as usually done. This paper uncovers the main reason of these issues, that is a non-stationarity relationship between the Wasserstein-based squared exponential kernel and its Euclidean-based counterpart. As a relevant result, the Gaussian Process model is learned by assuming the input space as Euclidean and then an algebraic transformation, based on the uncovered relation, is used to transform it into a non-stationary and Wasserstein-based Gaussian Process model over probability measures. This algebraic transformation is simpler than log-exp maps used in the case of data belonging to Riemannian manifolds and recently extended to consider the pseudo-Riemannian structure of an input space equipped with the Wasserstein distance.
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Subword-level models have been the dominant paradigm in NLP. However, character-level models have the benefit of seeing each character individually, providing the model with more detailed information that ultimately could lead to better models. Recent works have shown character-level models to be competitive with subword models, but costly in terms of time and computation. Character-level models with a downsampling component alleviate this, but at the cost of quality, particularly for machine translation. This work analyzes the problems of previous downsampling methods and introduces a novel downsampling method which is informed by subwords. This new downsampling method not only outperforms existing downsampling methods, showing that downsampling characters can be done without sacrificing quality, but also leads to promising performance compared to subword models for translation.
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Legged systems have many advantages when compared to their wheeled counterparts. For example, they can more easily navigate extreme, uneven terrain. However, there are disadvantages as well, particularly the difficulty seen in modeling the nonlinearities of the system. Research has shown that using flexible components within legged locomotive systems improves performance measures such as efficiency and running velocity. Because of the difficulties encountered in modeling flexible systems, control methods such as reinforcement learning can be used to define control strategies. Furthermore, reinforcement learning can be tasked with learning mechanical parameters of a system to match a control input. It is shown in this work that when deploying reinforcement learning to find design parameters for a pogo-stick jumping system, the designs the agents learn are optimal within the design space provided to the agents.
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The emergence of latency-critical AI applications has been supported by the evolution of the edge computing paradigm. However, edge solutions are typically resource-constrained, posing reliability challenges due to heightened contention for compute and communication capacities and faulty application behavior in the presence of overload conditions. Although a large amount of generated log data can be mined for fault prediction, labeling this data for training is a manual process and thus a limiting factor for automation. Due to this, many companies resort to unsupervised fault-tolerance models. Yet, failure models of this kind can incur a loss of accuracy when they need to adapt to non-stationary workloads and diverse host characteristics. To cope with this, we propose a novel modeling approach, called DeepFT, to proactively avoid system overloads and their adverse effects by optimizing the task scheduling and migration decisions. DeepFT uses a deep surrogate model to accurately predict and diagnose faults in the system and co-simulation based self-supervised learning to dynamically adapt the model in volatile settings. It offers a highly scalable solution as the model size scales by only 3 and 1 percent per unit increase in the number of active tasks and hosts. Extensive experimentation on a Raspberry-Pi based edge cluster with DeFog benchmarks shows that DeepFT can outperform state-of-the-art baseline methods in fault-detection and QoS metrics. Specifically, DeepFT gives the highest F1 scores for fault-detection, reducing service deadline violations by up to 37\% while also improving response time by up to 9%.
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Change detection (CD) aims to find the difference between two images at different times and outputs a change map to represent whether the region has changed or not. To achieve a better result in generating the change map, many State-of-The-Art (SoTA) methods design a deep learning model that has a powerful discriminative ability. However, these methods still get lower performance because they ignore spatial information and scaling changes between objects, giving rise to blurry or wrong boundaries. In addition to these, they also neglect the interactive information of two different images. To alleviate these problems, we propose our network, the Scale and Relation-Aware Siamese Network (SARAS-Net) to deal with this issue. In this paper, three modules are proposed that include relation-aware, scale-aware, and cross-transformer to tackle the problem of scene change detection more effectively. To verify our model, we tested three public datasets, including LEVIR-CD, WHU-CD, and DSFIN, and obtained SoTA accuracy. Our code is available at https://github.com/f64051041/SARAS-Net.
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Pairwise Causal Discovery is the task of determining causal, anticausal, confounded or independence relationships from pairs of variables. Over the last few years, this challenging task has promoted not only the discovery of novel machine learning models aimed at solving the task, but also discussions on how learning the causal direction of variables may benefit machine learning overall. In this paper, we show that Quantitative Information Flow (QIF), a measure usually employed for measuring leakages of information from a system to an attacker, shows promising results as features for the task. In particular, experiments with real-world datasets indicate that QIF is statistically tied to the state of the art. Our initial results motivate further inquiries on how QIF relates to causality and what are its limitations.
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The development of deep learning based image representation learning (IRL) methods has attracted great attention in the context of remote sensing (RS) image understanding. Most of these methods require the availability of a high quantity and quality of annotated training images, which can be time-consuming and costly to gather. To reduce labeling costs, publicly available thematic maps, automatic labeling procedures or crowdsourced data can be used. However, such approaches increase the risk of including label noise in training data. It may result in overfitting on noisy labels when discriminative reasoning is employed as in most of the existing methods. This leads to sub-optimal learning procedures, and thus inaccurate characterization of RS images. In this paper, as a first time in RS, we introduce a generative reasoning integrated label noise robust representation learning (GRID) approach. GRID aims to model the complementary characteristics of discriminative and generative reasoning for IRL under noisy labels. To this end, we first integrate generative reasoning into discriminative reasoning through a variational autoencoder. This allows our approach to automatically detect training samples with noisy labels. Then, through our label noise robust hybrid representation learning strategy, GRID adjusts the whole learning procedure for IRL of these samples through generative reasoning and that of the other samples through discriminative reasoning. Our approach learns discriminative image representations while preventing interference of noisy labels during training independently from the IRL method. Thus, unlike the existing methods, GRID does not depend on the type of annotation, label noise, neural network, loss or learning task, and thus can be utilized for various RS image understanding problems. Experimental results show the effectiveness of GRID compared to state-of-the-art methods.
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The body of research on classification of solar panel arrays from aerial imagery is increasing, yet there are still not many public benchmark datasets. This paper introduces two novel benchmark datasets for classifying and localizing solar panel arrays in Denmark: A human annotated dataset for classification and segmentation, as well as a classification dataset acquired using self-reported data from the Danish national building registry. We explore the performance of prior works on the new benchmark dataset, and present results after fine-tuning models using a similar approach as recent works. Furthermore, we train models of newer architectures and provide benchmark baselines to our datasets in several scenarios. We believe the release of these datasets may improve future research in both local and global geospatial domains for identifying and mapping of solar panel arrays from aerial imagery. The data is accessible at https://osf.io/aj539/.
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Online learning naturally arises in many statistical and machine learning problems. The most widely used methods in online learning are stochastic first-order algorithms. Among this family of algorithms, there is a recently developed algorithm, Recursive One-Over-T SGD (ROOT-SGD). ROOT-SGD is advantageous in that it converges at a non-asymptotically fast rate, and its estimator further converges to a normal distribution. However, this normal distribution has unknown asymptotic covariance; thus cannot be directly applied to measure the uncertainty. To fill this gap, we develop two estimators for the asymptotic covariance of ROOT-SGD. Our covariance estimators are useful for statistical inference in ROOT-SGD. Our first estimator adopts the idea of plug-in. For each unknown component in the formula of the asymptotic covariance, we substitute it with its empirical counterpart. The plug-in estimator converges at the rate $\mathcal{O}(1/\sqrt{t})$, where $t$ is the sample size. Despite its quick convergence, the plug-in estimator has the limitation that it relies on the Hessian of the loss function, which might be unavailable in some cases. Our second estimator is a Hessian-free estimator that overcomes the aforementioned limitation. The Hessian-free estimator uses the random-scaling technique, and we show that it is an asymptotically consistent estimator of the true covariance.
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To track the 3D locations and trajectories of the other traffic participants at any given time, modern autonomous vehicles are equipped with multiple cameras that cover the vehicle's full surroundings. Yet, camera-based 3D object tracking methods prioritize optimizing the single-camera setup and resort to post-hoc fusion in a multi-camera setup. In this paper, we propose a method for panoramic 3D object tracking, called CC-3DT, that associates and models object trajectories both temporally and across views, and improves the overall tracking consistency. In particular, our method fuses 3D detections from multiple cameras before association, reducing identity switches significantly and improving motion modeling. Our experiments on large-scale driving datasets show that fusion before association leads to a large margin of improvement over post-hoc fusion. We set a new state-of-the-art with 12.6% improvement in average multi-object tracking accuracy (AMOTA) among all camera-based methods on the competitive NuScenes 3D tracking benchmark, outperforming previously published methods by 6.5% in AMOTA with the same 3D detector.
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This work is on vision-based planning strategies for legged robots that separate locomotion planning into foothold selection and pose adaptation. Current pose adaptation strategies optimize the robot's body pose relative to given footholds. If these footholds are not reached, the robot may end up in a state with no reachable safe footholds. Therefore, we present a Vision-Based Terrain-Aware Locomotion (ViTAL) strategy that consists of novel pose adaptation and foothold selection algorithms. ViTAL introduces a different paradigm in pose adaptation that does not optimize the body pose relative to given footholds, but the body pose that maximizes the chances of the legs in reaching safe footholds. ViTAL plans footholds and poses based on skills that characterize the robot's capabilities and its terrain-awareness. We use the 90 kg HyQ and 140 kg HyQReal quadruped robots to validate ViTAL, and show that they are able to climb various obstacles including stairs, gaps, and rough terrains at different speeds and gaits. We compare ViTAL with a baseline strategy that selects the robot pose based on given selected footholds, and show that ViTAL outperforms the baseline.
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Brain tumor imaging has been part of the clinical routine for many years to perform non-invasive detection and grading of tumors. Tumor segmentation is a crucial step for managing primary brain tumors because it allows a volumetric analysis to have a longitudinal follow-up of tumor growth or shrinkage to monitor disease progression and therapy response. In addition, it facilitates further quantitative analysis such as radiomics. Deep learning models, in particular CNNs, have been a methodology of choice in many applications of medical image analysis including brain tumor segmentation. In this study, we investigated the main design aspects of CNN models for the specific task of MRI-based brain tumor segmentation. Two commonly used CNN architectures (i.e. DeepMedic and U-Net) were used to evaluate the impact of the essential parameters such as learning rate, batch size, loss function, and optimizer. The performance of CNN models using different configurations was assessed with the BraTS 2018 dataset to determine the most performant model. Then, the generalization ability of the model was assessed using our in-house dataset. For all experiments, U-Net achieved a higher DSC compared to the DeepMedic. However, the difference was only statistically significant for whole tumor segmentation using FLAIR sequence data and tumor core segmentation using T1w sequence data. Adam and SGD both with the initial learning rate set to 0.001 provided the highest segmentation DSC when training the CNN model using U-Net and DeepMedic architectures, respectively. No significant difference was observed when using different normalization approaches. In terms of loss functions, a weighted combination of soft Dice and cross-entropy loss with the weighting term set to 0.5 resulted in an improved segmentation performance and training stability for both DeepMedic and U-Net models.
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We present AI-SDC, an integrated suite of open source Python tools to facilitate Statistical Disclosure Control (SDC) of Machine Learning (ML) models trained on confidential data prior to public release. AI-SDC combines (i) a SafeModel package that extends commonly used ML models to provide ante-hoc SDC by assessing the vulnerability of disclosure posed by the training regime; and (ii) an Attacks package that provides post-hoc SDC by rigorously assessing the empirical disclosure risk of a model through a variety of simulated attacks after training. The AI-SDC code and documentation are available under an MIT license at https://github.com/AI-SDC/AI-SDC.
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In a recent paper Wunderlich and Pehle introduced the EventProp algorithm that enables training spiking neural networks by gradient descent on exact gradients. In this paper we present extensions of EventProp to support a wider class of loss functions and an implementation in the GPU enhanced neuronal networks framework which exploits sparsity. The GPU acceleration allows us to test EventProp extensively on more challenging learning benchmarks. We find that EventProp performs well on some tasks but for others there are issues where learning is slow or fails entirely. Here, we analyse these issues in detail and discover that they relate to the use of the exact gradient of the loss function, which by its nature does not provide information about loss changes due to spike creation or spike deletion. Depending on the details of the task and loss function, descending the exact gradient with EventProp can lead to the deletion of important spikes and so to an inadvertent increase of the loss and decrease of classification accuracy and hence a failure to learn. In other situations the lack of knowledge about the benefits of creating additional spikes can lead to a lack of gradient flow into earlier layers, slowing down learning. We eventually present a first glimpse of a solution to these problems in the form of `loss shaping', where we introduce a suitable weighting function into an integral loss to increase gradient flow from the output layer towards earlier layers.
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Bird's-Eye-View (BEV) 3D Object Detection is a crucial multi-view technique for autonomous driving systems. Recently, plenty of works are proposed, following a similar paradigm consisting of three essential components, i.e., camera feature extraction, BEV feature construction, and task heads. Among the three components, BEV feature construction is BEV-specific compared with 2D tasks. Existing methods aggregate the multi-view camera features to the flattened grid in order to construct the BEV feature. However, flattening the BEV space along the height dimension fails to emphasize the informative features of different heights. For example, the barrier is located at a low height while the truck is located at a high height. In this paper, we propose a novel method named BEV Slice Attention Network (BEV-SAN) for exploiting the intrinsic characteristics of different heights. Instead of flattening the BEV space, we first sample along the height dimension to build the global and local BEV slices. Then, the features of BEV slices are aggregated from the camera features and merged by the attention mechanism. Finally, we fuse the merged local and global BEV features by a transformer to generate the final feature map for task heads. The purpose of local BEV slices is to emphasize informative heights. In order to find them, we further propose a LiDAR-guided sampling strategy to leverage the statistical distribution of LiDAR to determine the heights of local slices. Compared with uniform sampling, LiDAR-guided sampling can determine more informative heights. We conduct detailed experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of BEV-SAN. Code will be released.
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The notion of concept drift refers to the phenomenon that the distribution generating the observed data changes over time. If drift is present, machine learning models may become inaccurate and need adjustment. Many technologies for learning with drift rely on the interleaved test-train error (ITTE) as a quantity which approximates the model generalization error and triggers drift detection and model updates. In this work, we investigate in how far this procedure is mathematically justified. More precisely, we relate a change of the ITTE to the presence of real drift, i.e., a changed posterior, and to a change of the training result under the assumption of optimality. We support our theoretical findings by empirical evidence for several learning algorithms, models, and datasets.
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The most popular methods and algorithms for AI are, for the vast majority, black boxes. Black boxes can be an acceptable solution to unimportant problems (in the sense of the degree of impact) but have a fatal flaw for the rest. Therefore the explanation tools for them have been quickly developed. The evaluation of their quality remains an open research question. In this technical report, we remind recently proposed post-hoc explainers FEM and MLFEM which have been designed for explanations of CNNs in image and video classification tasks. We also propose their evaluation with reference-based and no-reference metrics. The reference-based metrics are Pearson Correlation coefficient and Similarity computed between the explanation maps and the ground truth, which is represented by Gaze Fixation Density Maps obtained due to a psycho-visual experiment. As a no-reference metric we use "stability" metric, proposed by Alvarez-Melis and Jaakkola. We study its behaviour, consensus with reference-based metrics and show that in case of several kind of degradations on input images, this metric is in agreement with reference-based ones. Therefore it can be used for evaluation of the quality of explainers when the ground truth is not available.
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Most multimodal multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MMEAs) aim to find all global Pareto optimal sets (PSs) for a multimodal multi-objective optimization problem (MMOP). However, in real-world problems, decision makers (DMs) may be also interested in local PSs. Also, searching for both global and local PSs is more general in view of dealing with MMOPs, which can be seen as a generalized MMOP. In addition, the state-of-the-art MMEAs exhibit poor convergence on high-dimension MMOPs. To address the above two issues, in this study, a novel coevolutionary framework termed CoMMEA for multimodal multi-objective optimization is proposed to better obtain both global and local PSs, and simultaneously, to improve the convergence performance in dealing with high-dimension MMOPs. Specifically, the CoMMEA introduces two archives to the search process, and coevolves them simultaneously through effective knowledge transfer. The convergence archive assists the CoMMEA to quickly approaching the Pareto optimal front (PF). The knowledge of the converged solutions is then transferred to the diversity archive which utilizes the local convergence indicator and the $\epsilon$-dominance-based method to obtain global and local PSs effectively. Experimental results show that CoMMEA is competitive compared to seven state-of-the-art MMEAs on fifty-four complex MMOPs.
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The space-air-ground integrated network (SAGIN), one of the key technologies for next-generation mobile communication systems, can facilitate data transmission for users all over the world, especially in some remote areas where vast amounts of informative data are collected by Internet of remote things (IoRT) devices to support various data-driven artificial intelligence (AI) services. However, training AI models centrally with the assistance of SAGIN faces the challenges of highly constrained network topology, inefficient data transmission, and privacy issues. To tackle these challenges, we first propose a novel topology-aware federated learning framework for the SAGIN, namely Olive Branch Learning (OBL). Specifically, the IoRT devices in the ground layer leverage their private data to perform model training locally, while the air nodes in the air layer and the ring-structured low earth orbit (LEO) satellite constellation in the space layer are in charge of model aggregation (synchronization) at different scales.To further enhance communication efficiency and inference performance of OBL, an efficient Communication and Non-IID-aware Air node-Satellite Assignment (CNASA) algorithm is designed by taking the data class distribution of the air nodes as well as their geographic locations into account. Furthermore, we extend our OBL framework and CNASA algorithm to adapt to more complex multi-orbit satellite networks. We analyze the convergence of our OBL framework and conclude that the CNASA algorithm contributes to the fast convergence of the global model. Extensive experiments based on realistic datasets corroborate the superior performance of our algorithm over the benchmark policies.
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This book provides a solution to the control and motion planning design for an octocopter system. It includes a particular choice of control and motion planning algorithms which is based on the authors' previous research work, so it can be used as a reference design guidance for students, researchers as well as autonomous vehicles hobbyists. The control is constructed based on a fault tolerant approach aiming to increase the chances of the system to detect and isolate a potential failure in order to produce feasible control signals to the remaining active motors. The used motion planning algorithm is risk-aware by means that it takes into account the constraints related to the fault-dependant and mission-related maneuverability analysis of the octocopter system during the planning stage. Such a planner generates only those reference trajectories along which the octocopter system would be safe and capable of good tracking in case of a single motor fault and of majority of double motor fault scenarios. The control and motion planning algorithms presented in the book aim to increase the overall reliability of the system for completing the mission.
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Time series forecasting is a long-standing challenge due to the real-world information is in various scenario (e.g., energy, weather, traffic, economics, earthquake warning). However some mainstream forecasting model forecasting result is derailed dramatically from ground truth. We believe it's the reason that model's lacking ability of capturing frequency information which richly contains in real world datasets. At present, the mainstream frequency information extraction methods are Fourier transform(FT) based. However, use of FT is problematic due to Gibbs phenomenon. If the values on both sides of sequences differ significantly, oscillatory approximations are observed around both sides and high frequency noise will be introduced. Therefore We propose a novel frequency enhanced channel attention that adaptively modelling frequency interdependencies between channels based on Discrete Cosine Transform which would intrinsically avoid high frequency noise caused by problematic periodity during Fourier Transform, which is defined as Gibbs Phenomenon. We show that this network generalize extremely effectively across six real-world datasets and achieve state-of-the-art performance, we further demonstrate that frequency enhanced channel attention mechanism module can be flexibly applied to different networks. This module can improve the prediction ability of existing mainstream networks, which reduces 35.99% MSE on LSTM, 10.01% on Reformer, 8.71% on Informer, 8.29% on Autoformer, 8.06% on Transformer, etc., at a slight computational cost ,with just a few line of code. Our codes and data are available at https://github.com/Zero-coder/FECAM.
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Open Information Extraction (OIE) methods extract a large number of OIE triples (noun phrase, relation phrase, noun phrase) from text, which compose large Open Knowledge Bases (OKBs). However, noun phrases (NPs) and relation phrases (RPs) in OKBs are not canonicalized and often appear in different paraphrased textual variants, which leads to redundant and ambiguous facts. To address this problem, there are two related tasks: OKB canonicalization (i.e., convert NPs and RPs to canonicalized form) and OKB linking (i.e., link NPs and RPs with their corresponding entities and relations in a curated Knowledge Base (e.g., DBPedia). These two tasks are tightly coupled, and one task can benefit significantly from the other. However, they have been studied in isolation so far. In this paper, we explore the task of joint OKB canonicalization and linking for the first time, and propose a novel framework JOCL based on factor graph model to make them reinforce each other. JOCL is flexible enough to combine different signals from both tasks, and able to extend to fit any new signals. A thorough experimental study over two large scale OIE triple data sets shows that our framework outperforms all the baseline methods for the task of OKB canonicalization (OKB linking) in terms of average F1 (accuracy).
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We introduce DiffRF, a novel approach for 3D radiance field synthesis based on denoising diffusion probabilistic models. While existing diffusion-based methods operate on images, latent codes, or point cloud data, we are the first to directly generate volumetric radiance fields. To this end, we propose a 3D denoising model which directly operates on an explicit voxel grid representation. However, as radiance fields generated from a set of posed images can be ambiguous and contain artifacts, obtaining ground truth radiance field samples is non-trivial. We address this challenge by pairing the denoising formulation with a rendering loss, enabling our model to learn a deviated prior that favours good image quality instead of trying to replicate fitting errors like floating artifacts. In contrast to 2D-diffusion models, our model learns multi-view consistent priors, enabling free-view synthesis and accurate shape generation. Compared to 3D GANs, our diffusion-based approach naturally enables conditional generation such as masked completion or single-view 3D synthesis at inference time.
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In this paper, we present the Diver Interest via Pointing (DIP) algorithm, a highly modular method for conveying a diver's area of interest to an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) using pointing gestures for underwater human-robot collaborative tasks. DIP uses a single monocular camera and exploits human body pose, even with complete dive gear, to extract underwater human pointing gesture poses and their directions. By extracting 2D scene geometry based on the human body pose and density of salient feature points along the direction of pointing, using a low-level feature detector, the DIP algorithm is able to locate objects of interest as indicated by the diver.
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The accurate prediction of physicochemical properties of chemical compounds in mixtures (such as the activity coefficient at infinite dilution $\gamma_{ij}^\infty$) is essential for developing novel and more sustainable chemical processes. In this work, we analyze the performance of previously-proposed GNN-based models for the prediction of $\gamma_{ij}^\infty$, and compare them with several mechanistic models in a series of 9 isothermal studies. Moreover, we develop the Gibbs-Helmholtz Graph Neural Network (GH-GNN) model for predicting $\ln \gamma_{ij}^\infty$ of molecular systems at different temperatures. Our method combines the simplicity of a Gibbs-Helmholtz-derived expression with a series of graph neural networks that incorporate explicit molecular and intermolecular descriptors for capturing dispersion and hydrogen bonding effects. We have trained this model using experimentally determined $\ln \gamma_{ij}^\infty$ data of 40,219 binary-systems involving 1032 solutes and 866 solvents, overall showing superior performance compared to the popular UNIFAC-Dortmund model. We analyze the performance of GH-GNN for continuous and discrete inter/extrapolation and give indications for the model's applicability domain and expected accuracy. In general, GH-GNN is able to produce accurate predictions for extrapolated binary-systems if at least 25 systems with the same combination of solute-solvent chemical classes are contained in the training set and a similarity indicator above 0.35 is also present. This model and its applicability domain recommendations have been made open-source at https://github.com/edgarsmdn/GH-GNN.
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A key challenge in federated learning (FL) is the statistical heterogeneity that impairs the generalization of the global model on each client. To address this, we propose a method Federated learning with Adaptive Local Aggregation (FedALA) by capturing the desired information in the global model for client models in personalized FL. The key component of FedALA is an Adaptive Local Aggregation (ALA) module, which can adaptively aggregate the downloaded global model and local model towards the local objective on each client to initialize the local model before training in each iteration. To evaluate the effectiveness of FedALA, we conduct extensive experiments with five benchmark datasets in computer vision and natural language processing domains. FedALA outperforms eleven state-of-the-art baselines by up to 3.27% in test accuracy. Furthermore, we also apply ALA module to other federated learning methods and achieve up to 24.19% improvement in test accuracy.
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Hopfield attractor networks are robust distributed models of human memory. We propose construction rules such that an attractor network may implement an arbitrary finite state machine (FSM), where states and stimuli are represented by high-dimensional random bipolar vectors, and all state transitions are enacted by the attractor network's dynamics. Numerical simulations show the capacity of the model, in terms of the maximum size of implementable FSM, to be linear in the size of the attractor network. We show that the model is robust to imprecise and noisy weights, and so a prime candidate for implementation with high-density but unreliable devices. By endowing attractor networks with the ability to emulate arbitrary FSMs, we propose a plausible path by which FSMs may exist as a distributed computational primitive in biological neural networks.
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Simultaneous machine translation (SiMT) is usually done via sequence-level knowledge distillation (Seq-KD) from a full-sentence neural machine translation (NMT) model. However, there is still a significant performance gap between NMT and SiMT. In this work, we propose to leverage monolingual data to improve SiMT, which trains a SiMT student on the combination of bilingual data and external monolingual data distilled by Seq-KD. Preliminary experiments on En-Zh and En-Ja news domain corpora demonstrate that monolingual data can significantly improve translation quality (e.g., +3.15 BLEU on En-Zh). Inspired by the behavior of human simultaneous interpreters, we propose a novel monolingual sampling strategy for SiMT, considering both chunk length and monotonicity. Experimental results show that our sampling strategy consistently outperforms the random sampling strategy (and other conventional typical NMT monolingual sampling strategies) by avoiding the key problem of SiMT -- hallucination, and has better scalability. We achieve +0.72 BLEU improvements on average against random sampling on En-Zh and En-Ja. Data and codes can be found at https://github.com/hexuandeng/Mono4SiMT.
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