Although Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have achieved impressive results in computer vision, their exposed vulnerability to adversarial attacks remains a serious concern. A series of works has shown that by adding elaborate perturbations to images, DNNs could have catastrophic degradation in performance metrics. And this phenomenon does not only exist in the digital space but also in the physical space. Therefore, estimating the security of these DNNs-based systems is critical for safely deploying them in the real world, especially for security-critical applications, e.g., autonomous cars, video surveillance, and medical diagnosis. In this paper, we focus on physical adversarial attacks and provide a comprehensive survey of over 150 existing papers. We first clarify the concept of the physical adversarial attack and analyze its characteristics. Then, we define the adversarial medium, essential to perform attacks in the physical world. Next, we present the physical adversarial attack methods in task order: classification, detection, and re-identification, and introduce their performance in solving the trilemma: effectiveness, stealthiness, and robustness. In the end, we discuss the current challenges and potential future directions.
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