Considerable progress has recently been made in leveraging CLIP (Contrastive Language-Image Pre-Training) models for text-guided image manipulation. However, all existing works rely on additional generative models to ensure the quality of results, because CLIP alone cannot provide enough guidance information for fine-scale pixel-level changes. In this paper, we introduce CLIPVG, a text-guided image manipulation framework using differentiable vector graphics, which is also the first CLIP-based general image manipulation framework that does not require any additional generative models. We demonstrate that CLIPVG can not only achieve state-of-art performance in both semantic correctness and synthesis quality, but also is flexible enough to support various applications far beyond the capability of all existing methods.
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Recently, the joint learning framework (JOINT) integrates matching based transductive reasoning and online inductive learning to achieve accurate and robust semi-supervised video object segmentation (SVOS). However, using the mask embedding as the label to guide the generation of target features in the two branches may result in inadequate target representation and degrade the performance. Besides, how to reasonably fuse the target features in the two different branches rather than simply adding them together to avoid the adverse effect of one dominant branch has not been investigated. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that emphasizes Learning to Learn Better (LLB) target features for SVOS, termed LLB, where we design the discriminative label generation module (DLGM) and the adaptive fusion module to address these issues. Technically, the DLGM takes the background-filtered frame instead of the target mask as input and adopts a lightweight encoder to generate the target features, which serves as the label of the online few-shot learner and the value of the decoder in the transformer to guide the two branches to learn more discriminative target representation. The adaptive fusion module maintains a learnable gate for each branch, which reweighs the element-wise feature representation and allows an adaptive amount of target information in each branch flowing to the fused target feature, thus preventing one branch from being dominant and making the target feature more robust to distractor. Extensive experiments on public benchmarks show that our proposed LLB method achieves state-of-the-art performance.
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Clustering has been extensively studied in centralized settings, but relatively unexplored in federated ones that data are distributed among multiple clients and can only be kept local at the clients. The necessity to invest more resources in improving federated clustering methods is twofold: 1) The performance of supervised federated learning models can benefit from clustering. 2) It is non-trivial to extend centralized ones to perform federated clustering tasks. In centralized settings, various deep clustering methods that perform dimensionality reduction and clustering jointly have achieved great success. To obtain high-quality cluster information, it is natural but non-trivial to extend these methods to federated settings. For this purpose, we propose a simple but effective federated deep clustering method. It requires only one communication round between the central server and clients, can run asynchronously, and can handle device failures. Moreover, although most studies have highlighted adverse effects of the non-independent and identically distributed (non-IID) data across clients, experimental results indicate that the proposed method can significantly benefit from this scenario.
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The 1$^{\text{st}}$ Workshop on Maritime Computer Vision (MaCVi) 2023 focused on maritime computer vision for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV), and organized several subchallenges in this domain: (i) UAV-based Maritime Object Detection, (ii) UAV-based Maritime Object Tracking, (iii) USV-based Maritime Obstacle Segmentation and (iv) USV-based Maritime Obstacle Detection. The subchallenges were based on the SeaDronesSee and MODS benchmarks. This report summarizes the main findings of the individual subchallenges and introduces a new benchmark, called SeaDronesSee Object Detection v2, which extends the previous benchmark by including more classes and footage. We provide statistical and qualitative analyses, and assess trends in the best-performing methodologies of over 130 submissions. The methods are summarized in the appendix. The datasets, evaluation code and the leaderboard are publicly available at https://seadronessee.cs.uni-tuebingen.de/macvi.
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The ability to associate touch with sight is essential for tasks that require physically interacting with objects in the world. We propose a dataset with paired visual and tactile data called Touch and Go, in which human data collectors probe objects in natural environments using tactile sensors, while simultaneously recording egocentric video. In contrast to previous efforts, which have largely been confined to lab settings or simulated environments, our dataset spans a large number of "in the wild" objects and scenes. To demonstrate our dataset's effectiveness, we successfully apply it to a variety of tasks: 1) self-supervised visuo-tactile feature learning, 2) tactile-driven image stylization, i.e., making the visual appearance of an object more consistent with a given tactile signal, and 3) predicting future frames of a tactile signal from visuo-tactile inputs.
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We present a unified formulation and model for three motion and 3D perception tasks: optical flow, rectified stereo matching and unrectified stereo depth estimation from posed images. Unlike previous specialized architectures for each specific task, we formulate all three tasks as a unified dense correspondence matching problem, which can be solved with a single model by directly comparing feature similarities. Such a formulation calls for discriminative feature representations, which we achieve using a Transformer, in particular the cross-attention mechanism. We demonstrate that cross-attention enables integration of knowledge from another image via cross-view interactions, which greatly improves the quality of the extracted features. Our unified model naturally enables cross-task transfer since the model architecture and parameters are shared across tasks. We outperform RAFT with our unified model on the challenging Sintel dataset, and our final model that uses a few additional task-specific refinement steps outperforms or compares favorably to recent state-of-the-art methods on 10 popular flow, stereo and depth datasets, while being simpler and more efficient in terms of model design and inference speed.
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Image super-resolution is a common task on mobile and IoT devices, where one often needs to upscale and enhance low-resolution images and video frames. While numerous solutions have been proposed for this problem in the past, they are usually not compatible with low-power mobile NPUs having many computational and memory constraints. In this Mobile AI challenge, we address this problem and propose the participants to design an efficient quantized image super-resolution solution that can demonstrate a real-time performance on mobile NPUs. The participants were provided with the DIV2K dataset and trained INT8 models to do a high-quality 3X image upscaling. The runtime of all models was evaluated on the Synaptics VS680 Smart Home board with a dedicated edge NPU capable of accelerating quantized neural networks. All proposed solutions are fully compatible with the above NPU, demonstrating an up to 60 FPS rate when reconstructing Full HD resolution images. A detailed description of all models developed in the challenge is provided in this paper.
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Solar activity is usually caused by the evolution of solar magnetic fields. Magnetic field parameters derived from photospheric vector magnetograms of solar active regions have been used to analyze and forecast eruptive events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Unfortunately, the most recent solar cycle 24 was relatively weak with few large flares, though it is the only solar cycle in which consistent time-sequence vector magnetograms have been available through the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) since its launch in 2010. In this paper, we look into another major instrument, namely the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) from 1996 to 2010. The data archive of SOHO/MDI covers more active solar cycle 23 with many large flares. However, SOHO/MDI data only has line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms. We propose a new deep learning method, named MagNet, to learn from combined LOS magnetograms, Bx and By taken by SDO/HMI along with H-alpha observations collected by the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), and to generate vector components Bx' and By', which would form vector magnetograms with observed LOS data. In this way, we can expand the availability of vector magnetograms to the period from 1996 to present. Experimental results demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method. To our knowledge, this is the first time that deep learning has been used to generate photospheric vector magnetograms of solar active regions for SOHO/MDI using SDO/HMI and H-alpha data.
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Self-supervised pre-training vision transformer (ViT) via masked image modeling (MIM) has been proven very effective. However, customized algorithms should be carefully designed for the hierarchical ViTs, e.g., GreenMIM, instead of using the vanilla and simple MAE for the plain ViT. More importantly, since these hierarchical ViTs cannot reuse the off-the-shelf pre-trained weights of the plain ViTs, the requirement of pre-training them leads to a massive amount of computational cost, thereby incurring both algorithmic and computational complexity. In this paper, we address this problem by proposing a novel idea of disentangling the hierarchical architecture design from the self-supervised pre-training. We transform the plain ViT into a hierarchical one with minimal changes. Technically, we change the stride of linear embedding layer from 16 to 4 and add convolution (or simple average) pooling layers between the transformer blocks, thereby reducing the feature size from 1/4 to 1/32 sequentially. Despite its simplicity, it outperforms the plain ViT baseline in classification, detection, and segmentation tasks on ImageNet, MS COCO, Cityscapes, and ADE20K benchmarks, respectively. We hope this preliminary study could draw more attention from the community on developing effective (hierarchical) ViTs while avoiding the pre-training cost by leveraging the off-the-shelf checkpoints. The code and models will be released at https://github.com/ViTAE-Transformer/HPViT.
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Counterfactual explanations promote explainability in machine learning models by answering the question "how should an input instance be perturbed to obtain a desired predicted label?". The comparison of this instance before and after perturbation can enhance human interpretation. Most existing studies on counterfactual explanations are limited in tabular data or image data. In this work, we study the problem of counterfactual explanation generation on graphs. A few studies have explored counterfactual explanations on graphs, but many challenges of this problem are still not well-addressed: 1) optimizing in the discrete and disorganized space of graphs; 2) generalizing on unseen graphs; and 3) maintaining the causality in the generated counterfactuals without prior knowledge of the causal model. To tackle these challenges, we propose a novel framework CLEAR which aims to generate counterfactual explanations on graphs for graph-level prediction models. Specifically, CLEAR leverages a graph variational autoencoder based mechanism to facilitate its optimization and generalization, and promotes causality by leveraging an auxiliary variable to better identify the underlying causal model. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real-world graphs validate the superiority of CLEAR over the state-of-the-art methods in different aspects.
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