2022-11-28
Current computer vision models, unlike the human visual system, cannot yet achieve general-purpose visual understanding. Existing efforts to create a general vision model are limited in the scope of assessed tasks and offer no overarching framework to perform them holistically. We present a new comprehensive benchmark, General-purpose Visual Understanding Evaluation (G-VUE), covering the full spectrum of visual cognitive abilities with four functional domains $\unicode{x2014}$ Perceive, Ground, Reason, and Act. The four domains are embodied in 11 carefully curated tasks, from 3D reconstruction to visual reasoning and manipulation. Along with the benchmark, we provide a general encoder-decoder framework to allow for the evaluation of arbitrary visual representation on all 11 tasks. We evaluate various pre-trained visual representations with our framework and observe that (1) Transformer-based visual backbone generally outperforms CNN-based backbone on G-VUE, (2) visual representations from vision-language pre-training are superior to those with vision-only pre-training across visual tasks. With G-VUE, we provide a holistic evaluation standard to motivate research toward building general-purpose visual systems via obtaining more general-purpose visual representations.
translated by 谷歌翻译

2021-01-04
Astounding results from Transformer models on natural language tasks have intrigued the vision community to study their application to computer vision problems. Among their salient benefits, Transformers enable modeling long dependencies between input sequence elements and support parallel processing of sequence as compared to recurrent networks e.g., Long short-term memory (LSTM). Different from convolutional networks, Transformers require minimal inductive biases for their design and are naturally suited as set-functions. Furthermore, the straightforward design of Transformers allows processing multiple modalities (e.g., images, videos, text and speech) using similar processing blocks and demonstrates excellent scalability to very large capacity networks and huge datasets. These strengths have led to exciting progress on a number of vision tasks using Transformer networks. This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the Transformer models in the computer vision discipline. We start with an introduction to fundamental concepts behind the success of Transformers i.e., self-attention, large-scale pre-training, and bidirectional feature encoding. We then cover extensive applications of transformers in vision including popular recognition tasks (e.g., image classification, object detection, action recognition, and segmentation), generative modeling, multi-modal tasks (e.g., visual-question answering, visual reasoning, and visual grounding), video processing (e.g., activity recognition, video forecasting), low-level vision (e.g., image super-resolution, image enhancement, and colorization) and 3D analysis (e.g., point cloud classification and segmentation). We compare the respective advantages and limitations of popular techniques both in terms of architectural design and their experimental value. Finally, we provide an analysis on open research directions and possible future works. We hope this effort will ignite further interest in the community to solve current challenges towards the application of transformer models in computer vision.
translated by 谷歌翻译

2022-02-18

translated by 谷歌翻译

2022-12-06
The foundation models have recently shown excellent performance on a variety of downstream tasks in computer vision. However, most existing vision foundation models simply focus on image-level pretraining and adpation, which are limited for dynamic and complex video-level understanding tasks. To fill the gap, we present general video foundation models, InternVideo, by taking advantage of both generative and discriminative self-supervised video learning. Specifically, InternVideo efficiently explores masked video modeling and video-language contrastive learning as the pretraining objectives, and selectively coordinates video representations of these two complementary frameworks in a learnable manner to boost various video applications. Without bells and whistles, InternVideo achieves state-of-the-art performance on 39 video datasets from extensive tasks including video action recognition/detection, video-language alignment, and open-world video applications. Especially, our methods can obtain 91.1% and 77.2% top-1 accuracy on the challenging Kinetics-400 and Something-Something V2 benchmarks, respectively. All of these results effectively show the generality of our InternVideo for video understanding. The code will be released at https://github.com/OpenGVLab/InternVideo .
translated by 谷歌翻译

2022-12-01
Despite the superior performance brought by vision-and-language pretraining, it remains unclear whether learning with multi-modal data can help understand each individual modality. In this work, we investigate how language can help with visual representation learning from a probing perspective. Specifically, we compare vision-and-language and vision-only models by probing their visual representations on a broad range of tasks, in order to assess the quality of the learned representations in a fine-grained manner. Interestingly, our probing results suggest that vision-and-language models are better at label prediction tasks like object and attribute prediction, while vision-only models are stronger at dense prediction tasks that require more localized information. With further analysis using detailed metrics, our study suggests that language helps vision models learn better semantics, but not localization. Code is released at https://github.com/Lizw14/visual_probing.
translated by 谷歌翻译

2022-10-13
We present a retrospective on the state of Embodied AI research. Our analysis focuses on 13 challenges presented at the Embodied AI Workshop at CVPR. These challenges are grouped into three themes: (1) visual navigation, (2) rearrangement, and (3) embodied vision-and-language. We discuss the dominant datasets within each theme, evaluation metrics for the challenges, and the performance of state-of-the-art models. We highlight commonalities between top approaches to the challenges and identify potential future directions for Embodied AI research.
translated by 谷歌翻译

2022-12-21
We present X-Decoder, a generalized decoding model that can predict pixel-level segmentation and language tokens seamlessly. X-Decodert takes as input two types of queries: (i) generic non-semantic queries and (ii) semantic queries induced from text inputs, to decode different pixel-level and token-level outputs in the same semantic space. With such a novel design, X-Decoder is the first work that provides a unified way to support all types of image segmentation and a variety of vision-language (VL) tasks. Further, our design enables seamless interactions across tasks at different granularities and brings mutual benefits by learning a common and rich pixel-level visual-semantic understanding space, without any pseudo-labeling. After pretraining on a mixed set of a limited amount of segmentation data and millions of image-text pairs, X-Decoder exhibits strong transferability to a wide range of downstream tasks in both zero-shot and finetuning settings. Notably, it achieves (1) state-of-the-art results on open-vocabulary segmentation and referring segmentation on eight datasets; (2) better or competitive finetuned performance to other generalist and specialist models on segmentation and VL tasks; and (3) flexibility for efficient finetuning and novel task composition (e.g., referring captioning and image editing). Code, demo, video, and visualization are available at https://x-decoder-vl.github.io.
translated by 谷歌翻译

2021-11-17

translated by 谷歌翻译

2022-06-17

translated by 谷歌翻译

2022-12-19
Vision-Language Pre-Training (VLP) has shown promising capabilities to align image and text pairs, facilitating a broad variety of cross-modal learning tasks. However, we observe that VLP models often lack the visual grounding/localization capability which is critical for many downstream tasks such as visual reasoning. In this work, we propose a novel Position-guided Text Prompt (PTP) paradigm to enhance the visual grounding ability of cross-modal models trained with VLP. Specifically, in the VLP phase, PTP divides the image into $N\times N$ blocks, and identifies the objects in each block through the widely used object detector in VLP. It then reformulates the visual grounding task into a fill-in-the-blank problem given a PTP by encouraging the model to predict the objects in the given blocks or regress the blocks of a given object, e.g. filling P" or O" in aPTP `The block P has a O". This mechanism improves the visual grounding capability of VLP models and thus helps them better handle various downstream tasks. By introducing PTP into several state-of-the-art VLP frameworks, we observe consistently significant improvements across representative cross-modal learning model architectures and several benchmarks, e.g. zero-shot Flickr30K Retrieval (+4.8 in average recall@1) for ViLT \cite{vilt} baseline, and COCO Captioning (+5.3 in CIDEr) for SOTA BLIP \cite{blip} baseline. Moreover, PTP achieves comparable results with object-detector based methods, and much faster inference speed since PTP discards its object detector for inference while the later cannot. Our code and pre-trained weight will be released at \url{https://github.com/sail-sg/ptp}.
translated by 谷歌翻译

2022-07-05

translated by 谷歌翻译

2021-11-11

translated by 谷歌翻译

2022-09-15

translated by 谷歌翻译

2022-05-19
Vision-Language Transformers can be learned without human labels (e.g. class labels, bounding boxes, etc). Existing work, whether explicitly utilizing bounding boxes or patches, assumes that the visual backbone must first be trained on ImageNet class prediction before being integrated into a multimodal linguistic pipeline. We show that this is not necessary and introduce a new model Vision-Language from Captions (VLC) built on top of Masked Auto-Encoders that does not require this supervision. In fact, in a head-to-head comparison between ViLT, the current state-of-the-art patch-based vision-language transformer which is pretrained with supervised object classification, and our model, VLC, we find that our approach 1. outperforms ViLT on standard benchmarks, 2. provides more interpretable and intuitive patch visualizations, and 3. is competitive with many larger models that utilize ROIs trained on annotated bounding-boxes.
translated by 谷歌翻译

2021-02-26
State-of-the-art computer vision systems are trained to predict a fixed set of predetermined object categories. This restricted form of supervision limits their generality and usability since additional labeled data is needed to specify any other visual concept. Learning directly from raw text about images is a promising alternative which leverages a much broader source of supervision. We demonstrate that the simple pre-training task of predicting which caption goes with which image is an efficient and scalable way to learn SOTA image representations from scratch on a dataset of 400 million (image, text) pairs collected from the internet. After pre-training, natural language is used to reference learned visual concepts (or describe new ones) enabling zero-shot transfer of the model to downstream tasks. We study the performance of this approach by benchmarking on over 30 different existing computer vision datasets, spanning tasks such as OCR, action recognition in videos, geo-localization, and many types of fine-grained object classification. The model transfers non-trivially to most tasks and is often competitive with a fully supervised baseline without the need for any dataset specific training. For instance, we match the accuracy of the original ResNet-50 on ImageNet zero-shot without needing to use any of the 1.28 million training examples it was trained on. We release our code and pre-trained model weights at https://github.com/OpenAI/CLIP.
translated by 谷歌翻译

2021-04-07
We study joint learning of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Transformer for vision-language pre-training (VLPT) which aims to learn cross-modal alignments from millions of image-text pairs. State-of-the-art approaches extract salient image regions and align regions with words step-by-step. As region-based visual features usually represent parts of an image, it is challenging for existing visionlanguage models to fully understand the semantics from paired natural languages. In this paper, we propose SOHO to "See Out of tHe bOx" that takes a whole image as input, and learns vision-language representation in an endto-end manner. SOHO does not require bounding box annotations which enables inference 10 times faster than regionbased approaches. In particular, SOHO learns to extract comprehensive yet compact image features through a visual dictionary (VD) that facilitates cross-modal understanding. VD is designed to represent consistent visual abstractions of similar semantics. It is updated on-the-fly and utilized in our proposed pre-training task Masked Visual Modeling (MVM). We conduct experiments on four well-established vision-language tasks by following standard VLPT settings. In particular, SOHO achieves absolute gains of 2.0% R@1 score on MSCOCO text retrieval 5k test split, 1.5% accuracy on NLVR 2 test-P split, 6.7% accuracy on SNLI-VE test split, respectively.
translated by 谷歌翻译

2019-08-06
We present ViLBERT (short for Vision-and-Language BERT), a model for learning task-agnostic joint representations of image content and natural language. We extend the popular BERT architecture to a multi-modal two-stream model, processing both visual and textual inputs in separate streams that interact through co-attentional transformer layers. We pretrain our model through two proxy tasks on the large, automatically collected Conceptual Captions dataset and then transfer it to multiple established vision-and-language tasks -visual question answering, visual commonsense reasoning, referring expressions, and caption-based image retrieval -by making only minor additions to the base architecture. We observe significant improvements across tasks compared to existing task-specific modelsachieving state-of-the-art on all four tasks. Our work represents a shift away from learning groundings between vision and language only as part of task training and towards treating visual grounding as a pretrainable and transferable capability.Preprint. Under review.
translated by 谷歌翻译

2021-12-02

translated by 谷歌翻译

translated by 谷歌翻译

2022-05-04

translated by 谷歌翻译
${authors} 分类：${tags}
${pubdate}${abstract_cn}
translated by 谷歌翻译