Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarms are considered as a promising technique for next-generation communication networks due to their flexibility, mobility, low cost, and the ability to collaboratively and autonomously provide services. Distributed learning (DL) enables UAV swarms to intelligently provide communication services, multi-directional remote surveillance, and target tracking. In this survey, we first introduce several popular DL algorithms such as federated learning (FL), multi-agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL), distributed inference, and split learning, and present a comprehensive overview of their applications for UAV swarms, such as trajectory design, power control, wireless resource allocation, user assignment, perception, and satellite communications. Then, we present several state-of-the-art applications of UAV swarms in wireless communication systems, such us reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS), virtual reality (VR), semantic communications, and discuss the problems and challenges that DL-enabled UAV swarms can solve in these applications. Finally, we describe open problems of using DL in UAV swarms and future research directions of DL enabled UAV swarms. In summary, this survey provides a comprehensive survey of various DL applications for UAV swarms in extensive scenarios.
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