Deep neural networks (DNNs) are found to be vulnerable to adversarial attacks, and various methods have been proposed for the defense. Among these methods, adversarial training has been drawing increasing attention because of its simplicity and effectiveness. However, the performance of the adversarial training is greatly limited by the architectures of target DNNs, which often makes the resulting DNNs with poor accuracy and unsatisfactory robustness. To address this problem, we propose DSARA to automatically search for the neural architectures that are accurate and robust after adversarial training. In particular, we design a novel cell-based search space specially for adversarial training, which improves the accuracy and the robustness upper bound of the searched architectures by carefully designing the placement of the cells and the proportional relationship of the filter numbers. Then we propose a two-stage search strategy to search for both accurate and robust neural architectures. At the first stage, the architecture parameters are optimized to minimize the adversarial loss, which makes full use of the effectiveness of the adversarial training in enhancing the robustness. At the second stage, the architecture parameters are optimized to minimize both the natural loss and the adversarial loss utilizing the proposed multi-objective adversarial training method, so that the searched neural architectures are both accurate and robust. We evaluate the proposed algorithm under natural data and various adversarial attacks, which reveals the superiority of the proposed method in terms of both accurate and robust architectures. We also conclude that accurate and robust neural architectures tend to deploy very different structures near the input and the output, which has great practical significance on both hand-crafting and automatically designing of accurate and robust neural architectures.
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