Solving math word problems is the task that analyses the relation of quantities and requires an accurate understanding of contextual natural language information. Recent studies show that current models rely on shallow heuristics to predict solutions and could be easily misled by small textual perturbations. To address this problem, we propose a Textual Enhanced Contrastive Learning framework, which enforces the models to distinguish semantically similar examples while holding different mathematical logic. We adopt a self-supervised manner strategy to enrich examples with subtle textual variance by textual reordering or problem re-construction. We then retrieve the hardest to differentiate samples from both equation and textual perspectives and guide the model to learn their representations. Experimental results show that our method achieves state-of-the-art on both widely used benchmark datasets and also exquisitely designed challenge datasets in English and Chinese. \footnote{Our code and data is available at \url{https://github.com/yiyunya/Textual_CL_MWP}
translated by 谷歌翻译
Understanding objects is a central building block of artificial intelligence, especially for embodied AI. Even though object recognition excels with deep learning, current machines still struggle to learn higher-level knowledge, e.g., what attributes an object has, and what can we do with an object. In this work, we propose a challenging Object Concept Learning (OCL) task to push the envelope of object understanding. It requires machines to reason out object affordances and simultaneously give the reason: what attributes make an object possesses these affordances. To support OCL, we build a densely annotated knowledge base including extensive labels for three levels of object concept (category, attribute, affordance), and the causal relations of three levels. By analyzing the causal structure of OCL, we present a baseline, Object Concept Reasoning Network (OCRN). It leverages causal intervention and concept instantiation to infer the three levels following their causal relations. In experiments, OCRN effectively infers the object knowledge while following the causalities well. Our data and code are available at https://mvig-rhos.com/ocl.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Open-ended text generation with autoregressive language models (LMs) is one of the core tasks in natural language processing. However, maximization-based decoding methods (e.g., greedy/beam search) often lead to the degeneration problem, i.e., the generated text is unnatural and contains undesirable repetitions. Existing solutions to this problem either introduce randomness prone to incoherence or require a look-ahead mechanism that demands extra computational overhead. In this study, we formulate open-ended text generation from a new perspective, i.e., we view it as an exploration process within a directed graph. Thereby, we understand the phenomenon of degeneration as circular loops within the directed graph. Based on our formulation, we propose a novel decoding method -- \textit{momentum decoding} -- which encourages the LM to \textit{greedily} explore new nodes outside the current graph. Meanwhile, it also allows the LM to return to the existing nodes with a momentum downgraded by a pre-defined resistance function. We extensively test our approach on three benchmarks from different domains through automatic and human evaluations. The results show that momentum decoding performs comparably with the current state of the art while enjoying notably improved inference speed and computation FLOPs. Furthermore, we conduct a detailed analysis to reveal the merits and inner workings of our approach. Our codes and other related resources are publicly available at https://github.com/gmftbyGMFTBY/MomentumDecoding.
translated by 谷歌翻译
We propose eXtensible Prompt (X-Prompt) for prompting a large language model (LLM) beyond natural language (NL). X-Prompt instructs an LLM with not only NL but also an extensible vocabulary of imaginary words that are introduced to help represent what NL words hardly describe, allowing a prompt to be more descriptive. Like NL prompts, X-Prompt is out-of-distribution (OOD) robust, for which we propose context-guided learning with prompt augmentation to learn its imaginary words for general usability, enabling them to use in different prompt contexts for fine-grain specifications. The promising results of X-Prompt demonstrate its potential of approaching advanced interaction between humans and LLMs to bridge their communication gap.
translated by 谷歌翻译
When presented with a data stream of two statistically dependent variables, predicting the future of one of the variables (the target stream) can benefit from information about both its history and the history of the other variable (the source stream). For example, fluctuations in temperature at a weather station can be predicted using both temperatures and barometric readings. However, a challenge when modelling such data is that it is easy for a neural network to rely on the greatest joint correlations within the target stream, which may ignore a crucial but small information transfer from the source to the target stream. As well, there are often situations where the target stream may have previously been modelled independently and it would be useful to use that model to inform a new joint model. Here, we develop an information bottleneck approach for conditional learning on two dependent streams of data. Our method, which we call Transfer Entropy Bottleneck (TEB), allows one to learn a model that bottlenecks the directed information transferred from the source variable to the target variable, while quantifying this information transfer within the model. As such, TEB provides a useful new information bottleneck approach for modelling two statistically dependent streams of data in order to make predictions about one of them.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Deep metric learning aims to learn an embedding space, where semantically similar samples are close together and dissimilar ones are repelled against. To explore more hard and informative training signals for augmentation and generalization, recent methods focus on generating synthetic samples to boost metric learning losses. However, these methods just use the deterministic and class-independent generations (e.g., simple linear interpolation), which only can cover the limited part of distribution spaces around original samples. They have overlooked the wide characteristic changes of different classes and can not model abundant intra-class variations for generations. Therefore, generated samples not only lack rich semantics within the certain class, but also might be noisy signals to disturb training. In this paper, we propose a novel intra-class adaptive augmentation (IAA) framework for deep metric learning. We reasonably estimate intra-class variations for every class and generate adaptive synthetic samples to support hard samples mining and boost metric learning losses. Further, for most datasets that have a few samples within the class, we propose the neighbor correction to revise the inaccurate estimations, according to our correlation discovery where similar classes generally have similar variation distributions. Extensive experiments on five benchmarks show our method significantly improves and outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on retrieval performances by 3%-6%. Our code is available at https://github.com/darkpromise98/IAA
translated by 谷歌翻译
Contrastive Language-Image Pre-trained (CLIP) models have zero-shot ability of classifying an image belonging to "[CLASS]" by using similarity between the image and the prompt sentence "a [CONTEXT] of [CLASS]". Based on exhaustive text cues in "[CONTEXT]", CLIP model is aware of different contexts, e.g. background, style, viewpoint, and exhibits unprecedented robustness against a wide range of distribution shifts. However, recent works find further fine-tuning of CLIP models improves accuracy but sacrifices the robustness on downstream tasks. We conduct an empirical investigation to show fine-tuning will corrupt the context-aware ability of pre-trained CLIP features. To solve this problem, we propose Context-Aware Robust Fine-tuning (CAR-FT). CAR-FT regularizes the model during fine-tuning to capture the context information. Specifically, we use zero-shot prompt weights to get the context distribution contained in the image. By minimizing the Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD) between context distributions induced by original/fine-tuned CLIP models, CAR-FT makes the context-aware ability of CLIP inherited into downstream tasks, and achieves both higher In-Distribution (ID) and Out-Of-Distribution (OOD) accuracy. The experimental results show CAR-FT achieves superior robustness on five OOD test datasets of ImageNet, and meanwhile brings accuracy gains on nine downstream tasks. Additionally, CAR-FT surpasses previous Domain Generalization (DG) methods and gets 78.5% averaged accuracy on DomainBed benchmark, building the new state-of-the-art.
translated by 谷歌翻译
We conduct a systematic study of backdoor vulnerabilities in normally trained Deep Learning models. They are as dangerous as backdoors injected by data poisoning because both can be equally exploited. We leverage 20 different types of injected backdoor attacks in the literature as the guidance and study their correspondences in normally trained models, which we call natural backdoor vulnerabilities. We find that natural backdoors are widely existing, with most injected backdoor attacks having natural correspondences. We categorize these natural backdoors and propose a general detection framework. It finds 315 natural backdoors in the 56 normally trained models downloaded from the Internet, covering all the different categories, while existing scanners designed for injected backdoors can at most detect 65 backdoors. We also study the root causes and defense of natural backdoors.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction (ASTE) has become an emerging task in sentiment analysis research, aiming to extract triplets of the aspect term, its corresponding opinion term, and its associated sentiment polarity from a given sentence. Recently, many neural networks based models with different tagging schemes have been proposed, but almost all of them have their limitations: heavily relying on 1) prior assumption that each word is only associated with a single role (e.g., aspect term, or opinion term, etc. ) and 2) word-level interactions and treating each opinion/aspect as a set of independent words. Hence, they perform poorly on the complex ASTE task, such as a word associated with multiple roles or an aspect/opinion term with multiple words. Hence, we propose a novel approach, Span TAgging and Greedy infErence (STAGE), to extract sentiment triplets in span-level, where each span may consist of multiple words and play different roles simultaneously. To this end, this paper formulates the ASTE task as a multi-class span classification problem. Specifically, STAGE generates more accurate aspect sentiment triplet extractions via exploring span-level information and constraints, which consists of two components, namely, span tagging scheme and greedy inference strategy. The former tag all possible candidate spans based on a newly-defined tagging set. The latter retrieves the aspect/opinion term with the maximum length from the candidate sentiment snippet to output sentiment triplets. Furthermore, we propose a simple but effective model based on the STAGE, which outperforms the state-of-the-arts by a large margin on four widely-used datasets. Moreover, our STAGE can be easily generalized to other pair/triplet extraction tasks, which also demonstrates the superiority of the proposed scheme STAGE.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Compared with the vanilla transformer, the window-based transformer offers a better trade-off between accuracy and efficiency. Although the window-based transformer has made great progress, its long-range modeling capabilities are limited due to the size of the local window and the window connection scheme. To address this problem, we propose a novel Token Transformer (TT). The core mechanism of TT is the addition of a Class (CLS) token for summarizing window information in each local window. We refer to this type of token interaction as CLS Attention. These CLS tokens will interact spatially with the tokens in each window to enable long-range modeling. In order to preserve the hierarchical design of the window-based transformer, we designed Feature Inheritance Module (FIM) in each phase of TT to deliver the local window information from the previous phase to the CLS token in the next phase. In addition, we have designed a Spatial-Channel Feedforward Network (SCFFN) in TT, which can mix CLS tokens and embedded tokens on the spatial domain and channel domain without additional parameters. Extensive experiments have shown that our TT achieves competitive results with low parameters in image classification and downstream tasks.
translated by 谷歌翻译