Vision Transformers (ViTs) have achieved overwhelming success, yet they suffer from vulnerable resolution scalability, i.e., the performance drops drastically when presented with input resolutions that are unseen during training. We introduce, ResFormer, a framework that is built upon the seminal idea of multi-resolution training for improved performance on a wide spectrum of, mostly unseen, testing resolutions. In particular, ResFormer operates on replicated images of different resolutions and enforces a scale consistency loss to engage interactive information across different scales. More importantly, to alternate among varying resolutions, we propose a global-local positional embedding strategy that changes smoothly conditioned on input sizes. This allows ResFormer to cope with novel resolutions effectively. We conduct extensive experiments for image classification on ImageNet. The results provide strong quantitative evidence that ResFormer has promising scaling abilities towards a wide range resolutions. For instance, ResFormer-B-MR achieves a Top-1 accuracy of 75.86% and 81.72% when evaluated on relatively low and high resolutions respectively (i.e., 96 and 640), which are 48% and 7.49% better than DeiT-B. We also demonstrate, among other things, ResFormer is flexible and can be easily extended to semantic segmentation and video action recognition.
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