实时音乐伴奏的生成在音乐行业(例如音乐教育和现场表演)中具有广泛的应用。但是,自动实时音乐伴奏的产生仍在研究中,并且经常在逻辑延迟和暴露偏见之间取决于权衡。在本文中,我们提出了Song Driver,这是一种无逻辑延迟或暴露偏见的实时音乐伴奏系统。具体而言,Songdriver将一个伴奏的生成任务分为两个阶段:1)安排阶段,其中变压器模型首先安排了和弦,以实时进行输入旋律,并在下一阶段加速了和弦,而不是播放它们。 2)预测阶段,其中CRF模型基于先前缓存的和弦生成了即将到来的旋律的可播放的多轨伴奏。通过这种两相策略,歌手直接生成即将到来的旋律的伴奏,从而达到了零逻辑延迟。此外,在预测时间步的和弦时,歌手是指第一阶段的缓存和弦,而不是其先前的预测,这避免了暴露偏见问题。由于输入长度通常在实时条件下受到限制,因此另一个潜在的问题是长期顺序信息的丢失。为了弥补这一缺点,我们在当前时间步骤作为全球信息之前从长期音乐作品中提取了四个音乐功能。在实验中,我们在一些开源数据集上训练歌手,以及由中国风格的现代流行音乐得分构建的原始\```````'''aisong数据集。结果表明,歌手在客观和主观指标上均优于现有的SOTA(最先进)模型,同时大大降低了物理潜伏期。
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Focusing on the complicated pathological features, such as blurred boundaries, severe scale differences between symptoms, background noise interference, etc., in the task of retinal edema lesions joint segmentation from OCT images and enabling the segmentation results more reliable. In this paper, we propose a novel reliable multi-scale wavelet-enhanced transformer network, which can provide accurate segmentation results with reliability assessment. Specifically, aiming at improving the model's ability to learn the complex pathological features of retinal edema lesions in OCT images, we develop a novel segmentation backbone that integrates a wavelet-enhanced feature extractor network and a multi-scale transformer module of our newly designed. Meanwhile, to make the segmentation results more reliable, a novel uncertainty segmentation head based on the subjective logical evidential theory is introduced to generate the final segmentation results with a corresponding overall uncertainty evaluation score map. We conduct comprehensive experiments on the public database of AI-Challenge 2018 for retinal edema lesions segmentation, and the results show that our proposed method achieves better segmentation accuracy with a high degree of reliability as compared to other state-of-the-art segmentation approaches. The code will be released on: https://github.com/LooKing9218/ReliableRESeg.
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Complex dialogue mappings (CDM), including one-to-many and many-to-one mappings, tend to make dialogue models generate incoherent or dull responses, and modeling these mappings remains a huge challenge for neural dialogue systems. To alleviate these problems, methods like introducing external information, reconstructing the optimization function, and manipulating data samples are proposed, while they primarily focus on avoiding training with CDM, inevitably weakening the model's ability of understanding CDM in human conversations and limiting further improvements in model performance. This paper proposes a Sentence Semantic \textbf{Seg}mentation guided \textbf{C}onditional \textbf{V}ariational \textbf{A}uto-\textbf{E}ncoder (SegCVAE) method which can model and take advantages of the CDM data. Specifically, to tackle the incoherent problem caused by one-to-many, SegCVAE uses response-related prominent semantics to constrained the latent variable. To mitigate the non-diverse problem brought by many-to-one, SegCVAE segments multiple prominent semantics to enrich the latent variables. Three novel components, Internal Separation, External Guidance, and Semantic Norms, are proposed to achieve SegCVAE. On dialogue generation tasks, both the automatic and human evaluation results show that SegCVAE achieves new state-of-the-art performance.
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Synthesizing high-fidelity videos from real-world multi-view input is challenging because of the complexities of real-world environments and highly dynamic motions. Previous works based on neural radiance fields have demonstrated high-quality reconstructions of dynamic scenes. However, training such models on real-world scenes is time-consuming, usually taking days or weeks. In this paper, we present a novel method named MixVoxels to better represent the dynamic scenes with fast training speed and competitive rendering qualities. The proposed MixVoxels represents the 4D dynamic scenes as a mixture of static and dynamic voxels and processes them with different networks. In this way, the computation of the required modalities for static voxels can be processed by a lightweight model, which essentially reduces the amount of computation, especially for many daily dynamic scenes dominated by the static background. To separate the two kinds of voxels, we propose a novel variation field to estimate the temporal variance of each voxel. For the dynamic voxels, we design an inner-product time query method to efficiently query multiple time steps, which is essential to recover the high-dynamic motions. As a result, with 15 minutes of training for dynamic scenes with inputs of 300-frame videos, MixVoxels achieves better PSNR than previous methods. Codes and trained models are available at https://github.com/fengres/mixvoxels
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Hand and face play an important role in expressing sign language. Their features are usually especially leveraged to improve system performance. However, to effectively extract visual representations and capture trajectories for hands and face, previous methods always come at high computations with increased training complexity. They usually employ extra heavy pose-estimation networks to locate human body keypoints or rely on additional pre-extracted heatmaps for supervision. To relieve this problem, we propose a self-emphasizing network (SEN) to emphasize informative spatial regions in a self-motivated way, with few extra computations and without additional expensive supervision. Specifically, SEN first employs a lightweight subnetwork to incorporate local spatial-temporal features to identify informative regions, and then dynamically augment original features via attention maps. It's also observed that not all frames contribute equally to recognition. We present a temporal self-emphasizing module to adaptively emphasize those discriminative frames and suppress redundant ones. A comprehensive comparison with previous methods equipped with hand and face features demonstrates the superiority of our method, even though they always require huge computations and rely on expensive extra supervision. Remarkably, with few extra computations, SEN achieves new state-of-the-art accuracy on four large-scale datasets, PHOENIX14, PHOENIX14-T, CSL-Daily, and CSL. Visualizations verify the effects of SEN on emphasizing informative spatial and temporal features. Code is available at https://github.com/hulianyuyy/SEN_CSLR
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Non-autoregressive neural machine translation (NAT) models suffer from the multi-modality problem that there may exist multiple possible translations of a source sentence, so the reference sentence may be inappropriate for the training when the NAT output is closer to other translations. In response to this problem, we introduce a rephraser to provide a better training target for NAT by rephrasing the reference sentence according to the NAT output. As we train NAT based on the rephraser output rather than the reference sentence, the rephraser output should fit well with the NAT output and not deviate too far from the reference, which can be quantified as reward functions and optimized by reinforcement learning. Experiments on major WMT benchmarks and NAT baselines show that our approach consistently improves the translation quality of NAT. Specifically, our best variant achieves comparable performance to the autoregressive Transformer, while being 14.7 times more efficient in inference.
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Machine learning models are frequently employed to perform either purely physics-free or hybrid downscaling of climate data. However, the majority of these implementations operate over relatively small downscaling factors of about 4--6x. This study examines the ability of convolutional neural networks (CNN) to downscale surface wind speed data from three different coarse resolutions (25km, 48km, and 100km side-length grid cells) to 3km and additionally focuses on the ability to recover subgrid-scale variability. Within each downscaling factor, namely 8x, 16x, and 32x, we consider models that produce fine-scale wind speed predictions as functions of different input features: coarse wind fields only; coarse wind and fine-scale topography; and coarse wind, topography, and temporal information in the form of a timestamp. Furthermore, we train one model at 25km to 3km resolution whose fine-scale outputs are probability density function parameters through which sample wind speeds can be generated. All CNN predictions performed on one out-of-sample data outperform classical interpolation. Models with coarse wind and fine topography are shown to exhibit the best performance compared to other models operating across the same downscaling factor. Our timestamp encoding results in lower out-of-sample generalizability compared to other input configurations. Overall, the downscaling factor plays the largest role in model performance.
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Pseudo supervision is regarded as the core idea in semi-supervised learning for semantic segmentation, and there is always a tradeoff between utilizing only the high-quality pseudo labels and leveraging all the pseudo labels. Addressing that, we propose a novel learning approach, called Conservative-Progressive Collaborative Learning (CPCL), among which two predictive networks are trained in parallel, and the pseudo supervision is implemented based on both the agreement and disagreement of the two predictions. One network seeks common ground via intersection supervision and is supervised by the high-quality labels to ensure a more reliable supervision, while the other network reserves differences via union supervision and is supervised by all the pseudo labels to keep exploring with curiosity. Thus, the collaboration of conservative evolution and progressive exploration can be achieved. To reduce the influences of the suspicious pseudo labels, the loss is dynamic re-weighted according to the prediction confidence. Extensive experiments demonstrate that CPCL achieves state-of-the-art performance for semi-supervised semantic segmentation.
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How do we know when the predictions made by a classifier can be trusted? This is a fundamental problem that also has immense practical applicability, especially in safety-critical areas such as medicine and autonomous driving. The de facto approach of using the classifier's softmax outputs as a proxy for trustworthiness suffers from the over-confidence issue; while the most recent works incur problems such as additional retraining cost and accuracy versus trustworthiness trade-off. In this work, we argue that the trustworthiness of a classifier's prediction for a sample is highly associated with two factors: the sample's neighborhood information and the classifier's output. To combine the best of both worlds, we design a model-agnostic post-hoc approach NeighborAgg to leverage the two essential information via an adaptive neighborhood aggregation. Theoretically, we show that NeighborAgg is a generalized version of a one-hop graph convolutional network, inheriting the powerful modeling ability to capture the varying similarity between samples within each class. We also extend our approach to the closely related task of mislabel detection and provide a theoretical coverage guarantee to bound the false negative. Empirically, extensive experiments on image and tabular benchmarks verify our theory and suggest that NeighborAgg outperforms other methods, achieving state-of-the-art trustworthiness performance.
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Deep transfer learning has been widely used for knowledge transmission in recent years. The standard approach of pre-training and subsequently fine-tuning, or linear probing, has shown itself to be effective in many down-stream tasks. Therefore, a challenging and ongoing question arises: how to quantify cross-task transferability that is compatible with transferred results while keeping self-consistency? Existing transferability metrics are estimated on the particular model by conversing source and target tasks. They must be recalculated with all existing source tasks whenever a novel unknown target task is encountered, which is extremely computationally expensive. In this work, we highlight what properties should be satisfied and evaluate existing metrics in light of these characteristics. Building upon this, we propose Principal Gradient Expectation (PGE), a simple yet effective method for assessing transferability across tasks. Specifically, we use a restart scheme to calculate every batch gradient over each weight unit more than once, and then we take the average of all the gradients to get the expectation. Thus, the transferability between the source and target task is estimated by computing the distance of normalized principal gradients. Extensive experiments show that the proposed transferability metric is more stable, reliable and efficient than SOTA methods.
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