The number of international benchmarking competitions is steadily increasing in various fields of machine learning (ML) research and practice. So far, however, little is known about the common practice as well as bottlenecks faced by the community in tackling the research questions posed. To shed light on the status quo of algorithm development in the specific field of biomedical imaging analysis, we designed an international survey that was issued to all participants of challenges conducted in conjunction with the IEEE ISBI 2021 and MICCAI 2021 conferences (80 competitions in total). The survey covered participants' expertise and working environments, their chosen strategies, as well as algorithm characteristics. A median of 72% challenge participants took part in the survey. According to our results, knowledge exchange was the primary incentive (70%) for participation, while the reception of prize money played only a minor role (16%). While a median of 80 working hours was spent on method development, a large portion of participants stated that they did not have enough time for method development (32%). 25% perceived the infrastructure to be a bottleneck. Overall, 94% of all solutions were deep learning-based. Of these, 84% were based on standard architectures. 43% of the respondents reported that the data samples (e.g., images) were too large to be processed at once. This was most commonly addressed by patch-based training (69%), downsampling (37%), and solving 3D analysis tasks as a series of 2D tasks. K-fold cross-validation on the training set was performed by only 37% of the participants and only 50% of the participants performed ensembling based on multiple identical models (61%) or heterogeneous models (39%). 48% of the respondents applied postprocessing steps.
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在本文中,我们提出了一个紧密耦合的视觉惯性对象级多效性动态大满贯系统。即使在极其动态的场景中,它也可以为摄像机姿势,速度,IMU偏见并构建一个密集的3D重建对象级映射图。我们的系统可以通过稳健的传感器和对象跟踪,可以强牢固地跟踪和重建任意对象的几何形状,其语义和运动的几何形状,其语义和运动的几何形状,并通过逐步融合相关的颜色,深度,语义和前景对象概率概率。此外,当对象在视野视野外丢失或移动时,我们的系统可以在重新观察时可靠地恢复其姿势。我们通过定量和定性测试现实世界数据序列来证明我们方法的鲁棒性和准确性。
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张量分解因其在多维数据中捕获潜在因素的固有能力而获得了越来越多的兴趣,该数据具有许多应用程序,例如推荐系统和电子健康记录(EHR)挖掘。已经提出了Parafac2及其变体来解决不规则的张量,其中一种张量模式不对齐,例如,EHR中推荐系统或患者的不同用户可能具有不同的记录。 PARAFAC2已成功应用于EHRS,用于提取有意义的医学概念(表型)。尽管有最近的进步,但当前模型的可预测性和可解释性并不令人满意,这限制了其用于下游分析的效用。在本文中,我们提出了多个多任务学习的多个监督不规则张量分解。多个多个可以灵活地包含静态(例如,院内死亡率预测)和连续或动态(例如,通风的需求)任务。通过通过下游预测任务监督张量分解并利用来自多个相关预测任务的信息,Multipar不仅可以产生更有意义的表型,而且可以为下游任务提供更好的预测性能。我们在两个现实世界中的EHR数据集上进行了广泛的实验,以证明Multipar是可扩展的,并且与现有的最新方法相比,具有更有意义的亚组和更强的预测性能,可以更好地张紧张量。
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Masked image modeling (MIM) performs strongly in pre-training large vision Transformers (ViTs). However, small models that are critical for real-world applications cannot or only marginally benefit from this pre-training approach. In this paper, we explore distillation techniques to transfer the success of large MIM-based pre-trained models to smaller ones. We systematically study different options in the distillation framework, including distilling targets, losses, input, network regularization, sequential distillation, etc, revealing that: 1) Distilling token relations is more effective than CLS token- and feature-based distillation; 2) An intermediate layer of the teacher network as target perform better than that using the last layer when the depth of the student mismatches that of the teacher; 3) Weak regularization is preferred; etc. With these findings, we achieve significant fine-tuning accuracy improvements over the scratch MIM pre-training on ImageNet-1K classification, using all the ViT-Tiny, ViT-Small, and ViT-base models, with +4.2%/+2.4%/+1.4% gains, respectively. Our TinyMIM model of base size achieves 52.2 mIoU in AE20K semantic segmentation, which is +4.1 higher than the MAE baseline. Our TinyMIM model of tiny size achieves 79.6% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet-1K image classification, which sets a new record for small vision models of the same size and computation budget. This strong performance suggests an alternative way for developing small vision Transformer models, that is, by exploring better training methods rather than introducing inductive biases into architectures as in most previous works. Code is available at https://github.com/OliverRensu/TinyMIM.
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This paper presents a practical global optimization algorithm for the K-center clustering problem, which aims to select K samples as the cluster centers to minimize the maximum within-cluster distance. This algorithm is based on a reduced-space branch and bound scheme and guarantees convergence to the global optimum in a finite number of steps by only branching on the regions of centers. To improve efficiency, we have designed a two-stage decomposable lower bound, the solution of which can be derived in a closed form. In addition, we also propose several acceleration techniques to narrow down the region of centers, including bounds tightening, sample reduction, and parallelization. Extensive studies on synthetic and real-world datasets have demonstrated that our algorithm can solve the K-center problems to global optimal within 4 hours for ten million samples in the serial mode and one billion samples in the parallel mode. Moreover, compared with the state-of-the-art heuristic methods, the global optimum obtained by our algorithm can averagely reduce the objective function by 25.8% on all the synthetic and real-world datasets.
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Score-based diffusion models have captured widespread attention and funded fast progress of recent vision generative tasks. In this paper, we focus on diffusion model backbone which has been much neglected before. We systematically explore vision Transformers as diffusion learners for various generative tasks. With our improvements the performance of vanilla ViT-based backbone (IU-ViT) is boosted to be on par with traditional U-Net-based methods. We further provide a hypothesis on the implication of disentangling the generative backbone as an encoder-decoder structure and show proof-of-concept experiments verifying the effectiveness of a stronger encoder for generative tasks with ASymmetriC ENcoder Decoder (ASCEND). Our improvements achieve competitive results on CIFAR-10, CelebA, LSUN, CUB Bird and large-resolution text-to-image tasks. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to successfully train a single diffusion model on text-to-image task beyond 64x64 resolution. We hope this will motivate people to rethink the modeling choices and the training pipelines for diffusion-based generative models.
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Natural Language Processing (NLP) has been revolutionized by the use of Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) such as BERT. Despite setting new records in nearly every NLP task, PLMs still face a number of challenges including poor interpretability, weak reasoning capability, and the need for a lot of expensive annotated data when applied to downstream tasks. By integrating external knowledge into PLMs, \textit{\underline{K}nowledge-\underline{E}nhanced \underline{P}re-trained \underline{L}anguage \underline{M}odels} (KEPLMs) have the potential to overcome the above-mentioned limitations. In this paper, we examine KEPLMs systematically through a series of studies. Specifically, we outline the common types and different formats of knowledge to be integrated into KEPLMs, detail the existing methods for building and evaluating KEPLMS, present the applications of KEPLMs in downstream tasks, and discuss the future research directions. Researchers will benefit from this survey by gaining a quick and comprehensive overview of the latest developments in this field.
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Deep learning-based methods have achieved significant performance for image defogging. However, existing methods are mainly developed for land scenes and perform poorly when dealing with overwater foggy images, since overwater scenes typically contain large expanses of sky and water. In this work, we propose a Prior map Guided CycleGAN (PG-CycleGAN) for defogging of images with overwater scenes. To promote the recovery of the objects on water in the image, two loss functions are exploited for the network where a prior map is designed to invert the dark channel and the min-max normalization is used to suppress the sky and emphasize objects. However, due to the unpaired training set, the network may learn an under-constrained domain mapping from foggy to fog-free image, leading to artifacts and loss of details. Thus, we propose an intuitive Upscaling Inception Module (UIM) and a Long-range Residual Coarse-to-fine framework (LRC) to mitigate this issue. Extensive experiments on qualitative and quantitative comparisons demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art supervised, semi-supervised, and unsupervised defogging approaches.
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Conversational recommender systems (CRSs) often utilize external knowledge graphs (KGs) to introduce rich semantic information and recommend relevant items through natural language dialogues. However, original KGs employed in existing CRSs are often incomplete and sparse, which limits the reasoning capability in recommendation. Moreover, only few of existing studies exploit the dialogue context to dynamically refine knowledge from KGs for better recommendation. To address the above issues, we propose the Variational Reasoning over Incomplete KGs Conversational Recommender (VRICR). Our key idea is to incorporate the large dialogue corpus naturally accompanied with CRSs to enhance the incomplete KGs; and perform dynamic knowledge reasoning conditioned on the dialogue context. Specifically, we denote the dialogue-specific subgraphs of KGs as latent variables with categorical priors for adaptive knowledge graphs refactor. We propose a variational Bayesian method to approximate posterior distributions over dialogue-specific subgraphs, which not only leverages the dialogue corpus for restructuring missing entity relations but also dynamically selects knowledge based on the dialogue context. Finally, we infuse the dialogue-specific subgraphs to decode the recommendation and responses. We conduct experiments on two benchmark CRSs datasets. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our proposed method.
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Automatic image colorization is a particularly challenging problem. Due to the high illness of the problem and multi-modal uncertainty, directly training a deep neural network usually leads to incorrect semantic colors and low color richness. Existing transformer-based methods can deliver better results but highly depend on hand-crafted dataset-level empirical distribution priors. In this work, we propose DDColor, a new end-to-end method with dual decoders, for image colorization. More specifically, we design a multi-scale image decoder and a transformer-based color decoder. The former manages to restore the spatial resolution of the image, while the latter establishes the correlation between semantic representations and color queries via cross-attention. The two decoders incorporate to learn semantic-aware color embedding by leveraging the multi-scale visual features. With the help of these two decoders, our method succeeds in producing semantically consistent and visually plausible colorization results without any additional priors. In addition, a simple but effective colorfulness loss is introduced to further improve the color richness of generated results. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed DDColor achieves significantly superior performance to existing state-of-the-art works both quantitatively and qualitatively. Codes will be made publicly available.
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