Recently the deep learning has shown its advantage in representation learning and clustering for time series data. Despite the considerable progress, the existing deep time series clustering approaches mostly seek to train the deep neural network by some instance reconstruction based or cluster distribution based objective, which, however, lack the ability to exploit the sample-wise (or augmentation-wise) contrastive information or even the higher-level (e.g., cluster-level) contrastiveness for learning discriminative and clustering-friendly representations. In light of this, this paper presents a deep temporal contrastive clustering (DTCC) approach, which for the first time, to our knowledge, incorporates the contrastive learning paradigm into the deep time series clustering research. Specifically, with two parallel views generated from the original time series and their augmentations, we utilize two identical auto-encoders to learn the corresponding representations, and in the meantime perform the cluster distribution learning by incorporating a k-means objective. Further, two levels of contrastive learning are simultaneously enforced to capture the instance-level and cluster-level contrastive information, respectively. With the reconstruction loss of the auto-encoder, the cluster distribution loss, and the two levels of contrastive losses jointly optimized, the network architecture is trained in a self-supervised manner and the clustering result can thereby be obtained. Experiments on a variety of time series datasets demonstrate the superiority of our DTCC approach over the state-of-the-art.
translated by 谷歌翻译