A key challenge in federated learning (FL) is the statistical heterogeneity that impairs the generalization of the global model on each client. To address this, we propose a method Federated learning with Adaptive Local Aggregation (FedALA) by capturing the desired information in the global model for client models in personalized FL. The key component of FedALA is an Adaptive Local Aggregation (ALA) module, which can adaptively aggregate the downloaded global model and local model towards the local objective on each client to initialize the local model before training in each iteration. To evaluate the effectiveness of FedALA, we conduct extensive experiments with five benchmark datasets in computer vision and natural language processing domains. FedALA outperforms eleven state-of-the-art baselines by up to 3.27% in test accuracy. Furthermore, we also apply ALA module to other federated learning methods and achieve up to 24.19% improvement in test accuracy.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Offline reinforcement learning (RL) enables the agent to effectively learn from logged data, which significantly extends the applicability of RL algorithms in real-world scenarios where exploration can be expensive or unsafe. Previous works have shown that extracting primitive skills from the recurring and temporally extended structures in the logged data yields better learning. However, these methods suffer greatly when the primitives have limited representation ability to recover the original policy space, especially in offline settings. In this paper, we give a quantitative characterization of the performance of offline hierarchical learning and highlight the importance of learning lossless primitives. To this end, we propose to use a \emph{flow}-based structure as the representation for low-level policies. This allows us to represent the behaviors in the dataset faithfully while keeping the expression ability to recover the whole policy space. We show that such lossless primitives can drastically improve the performance of hierarchical policies. The experimental results and extensive ablation studies on the standard D4RL benchmark show that our method has a good representation ability for policies and achieves superior performance in most tasks.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Camouflaged object detection (COD) aims to detect/segment camouflaged objects embedded in the environment, which has attracted increasing attention over the past decades. Although several COD methods have been developed, they still suffer from unsatisfactory performance due to the intrinsic similarities between the foreground objects and background surroundings. In this paper, we propose a novel Feature Aggregation and Propagation Network (FAP-Net) for camouflaged object detection. Specifically, we propose a Boundary Guidance Module (BGM) to explicitly model the boundary characteristic, which can provide boundary-enhanced features to boost the COD performance. To capture the scale variations of the camouflaged objects, we propose a Multi-scale Feature Aggregation Module (MFAM) to characterize the multi-scale information from each layer and obtain the aggregated feature representations. Furthermore, we propose a Cross-level Fusion and Propagation Module (CFPM). In the CFPM, the feature fusion part can effectively integrate the features from adjacent layers to exploit the cross-level correlations, and the feature propagation part can transmit valuable context information from the encoder to the decoder network via a gate unit. Finally, we formulate a unified and end-to-end trainable framework where cross-level features can be effectively fused and propagated for capturing rich context information. Extensive experiments on three benchmark camouflaged datasets demonstrate that our FAP-Net outperforms other state-of-the-art COD models. Moreover, our model can be extended to the polyp segmentation task, and the comparison results further validate the effectiveness of the proposed model in segmenting polyps. The source code and results will be released at https://github.com/taozh2017/FAPNet.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Neural networks are susceptible to data inference attacks such as the membership inference attack, the adversarial model inversion attack and the attribute inference attack, where the attacker could infer useful information such as the membership, the reconstruction or the sensitive attributes of a data sample from the confidence scores predicted by the target classifier. In this paper, we propose a method, namely PURIFIER, to defend against membership inference attacks. It transforms the confidence score vectors predicted by the target classifier and makes purified confidence scores indistinguishable in individual shape, statistical distribution and prediction label between members and non-members. The experimental results show that PURIFIER helps defend membership inference attacks with high effectiveness and efficiency, outperforming previous defense methods, and also incurs negligible utility loss. Besides, our further experiments show that PURIFIER is also effective in defending adversarial model inversion attacks and attribute inference attacks. For example, the inversion error is raised about 4+ times on the Facescrub530 classifier, and the attribute inference accuracy drops significantly when PURIFIER is deployed in our experiment.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Vertical federated learning (VFL) is an emerging paradigm that enables collaborators to build machine learning models together in a distributed fashion. In general, these parties have a group of users in common but own different features. Existing VFL frameworks use cryptographic techniques to provide data privacy and security guarantees, leading to a line of works studying computing efficiency and fast implementation. However, the security of VFL's model remains underexplored.
translated by 谷歌翻译
A key barrier to using reinforcement learning (RL) in many real-world applications is the requirement of a large number of system interactions to learn a good control policy. Off-policy and Offline RL methods have been proposed to reduce the number of interactions with the physical environment by learning control policies from historical data. However, their performances suffer from the lack of exploration and the distributional shifts in trajectories once controllers are updated. Moreover, most RL methods require that all states are directly observed, which is difficult to be attained in many settings. To overcome these challenges, we propose a trajectory generation algorithm, which adaptively generates new trajectories as if the system is being operated and explored under the updated control policies. Motivated by the fundamental lemma for linear systems, assuming sufficient excitation, we generate trajectories from linear combinations of historical trajectories. For linear feedback control, we prove that the algorithm generates trajectories with the exact distribution as if they are sampled from the real system using the updated control policy. In particular, the algorithm extends to systems where the states are not directly observed. Experiments show that the proposed method significantly reduces the number of sampled data needed for RL algorithms.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Multi-instance learning (MIL) is a great paradigm for dealing with complex data and has achieved impressive achievements in a number of fields, including image classification, video anomaly detection, and far more. Each data sample is referred to as a bag containing several unlabeled instances, and the supervised information is only provided at the bag-level. The safety of MIL learners is concerning, though, as we can greatly fool them by introducing a few adversarial perturbations. This can be fatal in some cases, such as when users are unable to access desired images and criminals are attempting to trick surveillance cameras. In this paper, we design two adversarial perturbations to interpret the vulnerability of MIL methods. The first method can efficiently generate the bag-specific perturbation (called customized) with the aim of outsiding it from its original classification region. The second method builds on the first one by investigating the image-agnostic perturbation (called universal) that aims to affect all bags in a given data set and obtains some generalizability. We conduct various experiments to verify the performance of these two perturbations, and the results show that both of them can effectively fool MIL learners. We additionally propose a simple strategy to lessen the effects of adversarial perturbations. Source codes are available at https://github.com/InkiInki/MI-UAP.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Blind image super-resolution (Blind-SR) aims to recover a high-resolution (HR) image from its corresponding low-resolution (LR) input image with unknown degradations. Most of the existing works design an explicit degradation estimator for each degradation to guide SR. However, it is infeasible to provide concrete labels of multiple degradation combinations (\eg, blur, noise, jpeg compression) to supervise the degradation estimator training. In addition, these special designs for certain degradation, such as blur, impedes the models from being generalized to handle different degradations. To this end, it is necessary to design an implicit degradation estimator that can extract discriminative degradation representation for all degradations without relying on the supervision of degradation ground-truth. In this paper, we propose a Knowledge Distillation based Blind-SR network (KDSR). It consists of a knowledge distillation based implicit degradation estimator network (KD-IDE) and an efficient SR network. To learn the KDSR model, we first train a teacher network: KD-IDE$_{T}$. It takes paired HR and LR patches as inputs and is optimized with the SR network jointly. Then, we further train a student network KD-IDE$_{S}$, which only takes LR images as input and learns to extract the same implicit degradation representation (IDR) as KD-IDE$_{T}$. In addition, to fully use extracted IDR, we design a simple, strong, and efficient IDR based dynamic convolution residual block (IDR-DCRB) to build an SR network. We conduct extensive experiments under classic and real-world degradation settings. The results show that KDSR achieves SOTA performance and can generalize to various degradation processes. The source codes and pre-trained models will be released.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Recently, a surge of high-quality 3D-aware GANs have been proposed, which leverage the generative power of neural rendering. It is natural to associate 3D GANs with GAN inversion methods to project a real image into the generator's latent space, allowing free-view consistent synthesis and editing, referred as 3D GAN inversion. Although with the facial prior preserved in pre-trained 3D GANs, reconstructing a 3D portrait with only one monocular image is still an ill-pose problem. The straightforward application of 2D GAN inversion methods focuses on texture similarity only while ignoring the correctness of 3D geometry shapes. It may raise geometry collapse effects, especially when reconstructing a side face under an extreme pose. Besides, the synthetic results in novel views are prone to be blurry. In this work, we propose a novel method to promote 3D GAN inversion by introducing facial symmetry prior. We design a pipeline and constraints to make full use of the pseudo auxiliary view obtained via image flipping, which helps obtain a robust and reasonable geometry shape during the inversion process. To enhance texture fidelity in unobserved viewpoints, pseudo labels from depth-guided 3D warping can provide extra supervision. We design constraints aimed at filtering out conflict areas for optimization in asymmetric situations. Comprehensive quantitative and qualitative evaluations on image reconstruction and editing demonstrate the superiority of our method.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Non-autoregressive neural machine translation (NAT) models suffer from the multi-modality problem that there may exist multiple possible translations of a source sentence, so the reference sentence may be inappropriate for the training when the NAT output is closer to other translations. In response to this problem, we introduce a rephraser to provide a better training target for NAT by rephrasing the reference sentence according to the NAT output. As we train NAT based on the rephraser output rather than the reference sentence, the rephraser output should fit well with the NAT output and not deviate too far from the reference, which can be quantified as reward functions and optimized by reinforcement learning. Experiments on major WMT benchmarks and NAT baselines show that our approach consistently improves the translation quality of NAT. Specifically, our best variant achieves comparable performance to the autoregressive Transformer, while being 14.7 times more efficient in inference.
translated by 谷歌翻译