Optimal Transport (OT) provides a useful geometric framework to estimate the permutation matrix under unsupervised cross-lingual word embedding (CLWE) models that pose the alignment task as a Wasserstein-Procrustes problem. However, linear programming algorithms and approximate OT solvers via Sinkhorn for computing the permutation matrix come with a significant computational burden since they scale cubically and quadratically, respectively, in the input size. This makes it slow and infeasible to compute OT distances exactly for a larger input size, resulting in a poor approximation quality of the permutation matrix and subsequently a less robust learned transfer function or mapper. This paper proposes an unsupervised projection-based CLWE model called quantized Wasserstein Procrustes (qWP). qWP relies on a quantization step of both the source and target monolingual embedding space to estimate the permutation matrix given a cheap sampling procedure. This approach substantially improves the approximation quality of empirical OT solvers given fixed computational cost. We demonstrate that qWP achieves state-of-the-art results on the Bilingual lexicon Induction (BLI) task.
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Automatic parsing of human anatomies at instance-level from 3D computed tomography (CT) scans is a prerequisite step for many clinical applications. The presence of pathologies, broken structures or limited field-of-view (FOV) all can make anatomy parsing algorithms vulnerable. In this work, we explore how to exploit and conduct the prosperous detection-then-segmentation paradigm in 3D medical data, and propose a steerable, robust, and efficient computing framework for detection, identification, and segmentation of anatomies in CT scans. Considering complicated shapes, sizes and orientations of anatomies, without lose of generality, we present the nine degrees-of-freedom (9-DoF) pose estimation solution in full 3D space using a novel single-stage, non-hierarchical forward representation. Our whole framework is executed in a steerable manner where any anatomy of interest can be directly retrieved to further boost the inference efficiency. We have validated the proposed method on three medical imaging parsing tasks of ribs, spine, and abdominal organs. For rib parsing, CT scans have been annotated at the rib instance-level for quantitative evaluation, similarly for spine vertebrae and abdominal organs. Extensive experiments on 9-DoF box detection and rib instance segmentation demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework (with the identification rate of 97.0% and the segmentation Dice score of 90.9%) in high efficiency, compared favorably against several strong baselines (e.g., CenterNet, FCOS, and nnU-Net). For spine identification and segmentation, our method achieves a new state-of-the-art result on the public CTSpine1K dataset. Last, we report highly competitive results in multi-organ segmentation at FLARE22 competition. Our annotations, code and models will be made publicly available at: https://github.com/alibaba-damo-academy/Med_Query.
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We approach the problem of improving robustness of deep learning algorithms in the presence of label noise. Building upon existing label correction and co-teaching methods, we propose a novel training procedure to mitigate the memorization of noisy labels, called CrossSplit, which uses a pair of neural networks trained on two disjoint parts of the dataset. CrossSplit combines two main ingredients: (i) Cross-split label correction. The idea is that, since the model trained on one part of the data cannot memorize example-label pairs from the other part, the training labels presented to each network can be smoothly adjusted by using the predictions of its peer network; (ii) Cross-split semi-supervised training. A network trained on one part of the data also uses the unlabeled inputs of the other part. Extensive experiments on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, Tiny-ImageNet and mini-WebVision datasets demonstrate that our method can outperform the current state-of-the-art up to 90% noise ratio.
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Most cross-device federated learning (FL) studies focus on the model-homogeneous setting where the global server model and local client models are identical. However, such constraint not only excludes low-end clients who would otherwise make unique contributions to model training but also restrains clients from training large models due to on-device resource bottlenecks. In this work, we propose FedRolex, a partial training (PT)-based approach that enables model-heterogeneous FL and can train a global server model larger than the largest client model. At its core, FedRolex employs a rolling sub-model extraction scheme that allows different parts of the global server model to be evenly trained, which mitigates the client drift induced by the inconsistency between individual client models and server model architectures. We show that FedRolex outperforms state-of-the-art PT-based model-heterogeneous FL methods (e.g. Federated Dropout) and reduces the gap between model-heterogeneous and model-homogeneous FL, especially under the large-model large-dataset regime. In addition, we provide theoretical statistical analysis on its advantage over Federated Dropout and evaluate FedRolex on an emulated real-world device distribution to show that FedRolex can enhance the inclusiveness of FL and boost the performance of low-end devices that would otherwise not benefit from FL. Our code is available at https://github.com/MSU-MLSys-Lab/FedRolex.
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Domain generalization (DG) aims to train a model to perform well in unseen domains under different distributions. This paper considers a more realistic yet more challenging scenario,namely Single Domain Generalization (Single-DG), where only a single source domain is available for training. To tackle this challenge, we first try to understand when neural networks fail to generalize? We empirically ascertain a property of a model that correlates strongly with its generalization that we coin as "model sensitivity". Based on our analysis, we propose a novel strategy of Spectral Adversarial Data Augmentation (SADA) to generate augmented images targeted at the highly sensitive frequencies. Models trained with these hard-to-learn samples can effectively suppress the sensitivity in the frequency space, which leads to improved generalization performance. Extensive experiments on multiple public datasets demonstrate the superiority of our approach, which surpasses the state-of-the-art single-DG methods.
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Current math word problem (MWP) solvers are usually Seq2Seq models trained by the (one-problem; one-solution) pairs, each of which is made of a problem description and a solution showing reasoning flow to get the correct answer. However, one MWP problem naturally has multiple solution equations. The training of an MWP solver with (one-problem; one-solution) pairs excludes other correct solutions, and thus limits the generalizability of the MWP solver. One feasible solution to this limitation is to augment multiple solutions to a given problem. However, it is difficult to collect diverse and accurate augment solutions through human efforts. In this paper, we design a new training framework for an MWP solver by introducing a solution buffer and a solution discriminator. The buffer includes solutions generated by an MWP solver to encourage the training data diversity. The discriminator controls the quality of buffered solutions to participate in training. Our framework is flexibly applicable to a wide setting of fully, semi-weakly and weakly supervised training for all Seq2Seq MWP solvers. We conduct extensive experiments on a benchmark dataset Math23k and a new dataset named Weak12k, and show that our framework improves the performance of various MWP solvers under different settings by generating correct and diverse solutions.
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Clustering has been extensively studied in centralized settings, but relatively unexplored in federated ones that data are distributed among multiple clients and can only be kept local at the clients. The necessity to invest more resources in improving federated clustering methods is twofold: 1) The performance of supervised federated learning models can benefit from clustering. 2) It is non-trivial to extend centralized ones to perform federated clustering tasks. In centralized settings, various deep clustering methods that perform dimensionality reduction and clustering jointly have achieved great success. To obtain high-quality cluster information, it is natural but non-trivial to extend these methods to federated settings. For this purpose, we propose a simple but effective federated deep clustering method. It requires only one communication round between the central server and clients, can run asynchronously, and can handle device failures. Moreover, although most studies have highlighted adverse effects of the non-independent and identically distributed (non-IID) data across clients, experimental results indicate that the proposed method can significantly benefit from this scenario.
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In this paper, we propose a novel multi-modal multi-task encoder-decoder pre-training framework (MMSpeech) for Mandarin automatic speech recognition (ASR), which employs both unlabeled speech and text data. The main difficulty in speech-text joint pre-training comes from the significant difference between speech and text modalities, especially for Mandarin speech and text. Unlike English and other languages with an alphabetic writing system, Mandarin uses an ideographic writing system where character and sound are not tightly mapped to one another. Therefore, we propose to introduce the phoneme modality into pre-training, which can help capture modality-invariant information between Mandarin speech and text. Specifically, we employ a multi-task learning framework including five self-supervised and supervised tasks with speech and text data. For end-to-end pre-training, we introduce self-supervised speech-to-pseudo-codes (S2C) and phoneme-to-text (P2T) tasks utilizing unlabeled speech and text data, where speech-pseudo-codes pairs and phoneme-text pairs are a supplement to the supervised speech-text pairs. To train the encoder to learn better speech representation, we introduce self-supervised masked speech prediction (MSP) and supervised phoneme prediction (PP) tasks to learn to map speech into phonemes. Besides, we directly add the downstream supervised speech-to-text (S2T) task into the pre-training process, which can further improve the pre-training performance and achieve better recognition results even without fine-tuning. Experiments on AISHELL-1 show that our proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance, with a more than 40% relative improvement compared with other pre-training methods.
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The interaction and dimension of points are two important axes in designing point operators to serve hierarchical 3D models. Yet, these two axes are heterogeneous and challenging to fully explore. Existing works craft point operator under a single axis and reuse the crafted operator in all parts of 3D models. This overlooks the opportunity to better combine point interactions and dimensions by exploiting varying geometry/density of 3D point clouds. In this work, we establish PIDS, a novel paradigm to jointly explore point interactions and point dimensions to serve semantic segmentation on point cloud data. We establish a large search space to jointly consider versatile point interactions and point dimensions. This supports point operators with various geometry/density considerations. The enlarged search space with heterogeneous search components calls for a better ranking of candidate models. To achieve this, we improve the search space exploration by leveraging predictor-based Neural Architecture Search (NAS), and enhance the quality of prediction by assigning unique encoding to heterogeneous search components based on their priors. We thoroughly evaluate the networks crafted by PIDS on two semantic segmentation benchmarks, showing ~1% mIOU improvement on SemanticKITTI and S3DIS over state-of-the-art 3D models.
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Existing Cross Modal Hashing (CMH) methods are mainly designed for balanced data, while imbalanced data with long-tail distribution is more general in real-world. Several long-tail hashing methods have been proposed but they can not adapt for multi-modal data, due to the complex interplay between labels and individuality and commonality information of multi-modal data. Furthermore, CMH methods mostly mine the commonality of multi-modal data to learn hash codes, which may override tail labels encoded by the individuality of respective modalities. In this paper, we propose LtCMH (Long-tail CMH) to handle imbalanced multi-modal data. LtCMH firstly adopts auto-encoders to mine the individuality and commonality of different modalities by minimizing the dependency between the individuality of respective modalities and by enhancing the commonality of these modalities. Then it dynamically combines the individuality and commonality with direct features extracted from respective modalities to create meta features that enrich the representation of tail labels, and binaries meta features to generate hash codes. LtCMH significantly outperforms state-of-the-art baselines on long-tail datasets and holds a better (or comparable) performance on datasets with balanced labels.
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