多目标多摄像机跟踪(MTMCT)在智能视频分析,监视视频检索和其他应用程序方案中起着重要作用。如今,基于深度学习的MTMCT一直是主流,并且在跟踪准确性和效率方面取得了令人着迷的改进。但是,根据我们的调查,缺乏关注现实应用程序方案的数据集限制了当前基于学习的MTMCT模型的进一步改进。具体而言,基于学习的MTMCT模型通过通用数据集培训通常无法在现实世界应用方案中获得令人满意的结果。在此激励的情况下,本文提出了一个半自动数据注释系统,以促进现实世界中的MTMCT数据集建立。拟议的系统首先采用基于深度学习的单相机轨迹生成方法来自动从监视视频中提取轨迹。随后,该系统在以下手动跨摄像机轨迹匹配过程中提供了建议列表。推荐列表是根据侧面信息生成的,包括相机位置,时间戳关系和背景场景。在实验阶段,广泛的结果进一步证明了拟议系统的效率。
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Open Information Extraction (OIE) methods extract a large number of OIE triples (noun phrase, relation phrase, noun phrase) from text, which compose large Open Knowledge Bases (OKBs). However, noun phrases (NPs) and relation phrases (RPs) in OKBs are not canonicalized and often appear in different paraphrased textual variants, which leads to redundant and ambiguous facts. To address this problem, there are two related tasks: OKB canonicalization (i.e., convert NPs and RPs to canonicalized form) and OKB linking (i.e., link NPs and RPs with their corresponding entities and relations in a curated Knowledge Base (e.g., DBPedia). These two tasks are tightly coupled, and one task can benefit significantly from the other. However, they have been studied in isolation so far. In this paper, we explore the task of joint OKB canonicalization and linking for the first time, and propose a novel framework JOCL based on factor graph model to make them reinforce each other. JOCL is flexible enough to combine different signals from both tasks, and able to extend to fit any new signals. A thorough experimental study over two large scale OIE triple data sets shows that our framework outperforms all the baseline methods for the task of OKB canonicalization (OKB linking) in terms of average F1 (accuracy).
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Learning semantic-rich representations from raw unlabeled time series data is critical for downstream tasks such as classification and forecasting. Contrastive learning has recently shown its promising representation learning capability in the absence of expert annotations. However, existing contrastive approaches generally treat each instance independently, which leads to false negative pairs that share the same semantics. To tackle this problem, we propose MHCCL, a Masked Hierarchical Cluster-wise Contrastive Learning model, which exploits semantic information obtained from the hierarchical structure consisting of multiple latent partitions for multivariate time series. Motivated by the observation that fine-grained clustering preserves higher purity while coarse-grained one reflects higher-level semantics, we propose a novel downward masking strategy to filter out fake negatives and supplement positives by incorporating the multi-granularity information from the clustering hierarchy. In addition, a novel upward masking strategy is designed in MHCCL to remove outliers of clusters at each partition to refine prototypes, which helps speed up the hierarchical clustering process and improves the clustering quality. We conduct experimental evaluations on seven widely-used multivariate time series datasets. The results demonstrate the superiority of MHCCL over the state-of-the-art approaches for unsupervised time series representation learning.
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Cross-modality magnetic resonance (MR) image synthesis aims to produce missing modalities from existing ones. Currently, several methods based on deep neural networks have been developed using both source- and target-modalities in a supervised learning manner. However, it remains challenging to obtain a large amount of completely paired multi-modal training data, which inhibits the effectiveness of existing methods. In this paper, we propose a novel Self-supervised Learning-based Multi-scale Transformer Network (SLMT-Net) for cross-modality MR image synthesis, consisting of two stages, \ie, a pre-training stage and a fine-tuning stage. During the pre-training stage, we propose an Edge-preserving Masked AutoEncoder (Edge-MAE), which preserves the contextual and edge information by simultaneously conducting the image reconstruction and the edge generation. Besides, a patch-wise loss is proposed to treat the input patches differently regarding their reconstruction difficulty, by measuring the difference between the reconstructed image and the ground-truth. In this case, our Edge-MAE can fully leverage a large amount of unpaired multi-modal data to learn effective feature representations. During the fine-tuning stage, we present a Multi-scale Transformer U-Net (MT-UNet) to synthesize the target-modality images, in which a Dual-scale Selective Fusion (DSF) module is proposed to fully integrate multi-scale features extracted from the encoder of the pre-trained Edge-MAE. Moreover, we use the pre-trained encoder as a feature consistency module to measure the difference between high-level features of the synthesized image and the ground truth one. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed SLMT-Net, and our model can reliably synthesize high-quality images when the training set is partially unpaired. Our code will be publicly available at https://github.com/lyhkevin/SLMT-Net.
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The problem of covariate-shift generalization has attracted intensive research attention. Previous stable learning algorithms employ sample reweighting schemes to decorrelate the covariates when there is no explicit domain information about training data. However, with finite samples, it is difficult to achieve the desirable weights that ensure perfect independence to get rid of the unstable variables. Besides, decorrelating within stable variables may bring about high variance of learned models because of the over-reduced effective sample size. A tremendous sample size is required for these algorithms to work. In this paper, with theoretical justification, we propose SVI (Sparse Variable Independence) for the covariate-shift generalization problem. We introduce sparsity constraint to compensate for the imperfectness of sample reweighting under the finite-sample setting in previous methods. Furthermore, we organically combine independence-based sample reweighting and sparsity-based variable selection in an iterative way to avoid decorrelating within stable variables, increasing the effective sample size to alleviate variance inflation. Experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the improvement of covariate-shift generalization performance brought by SVI.
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Visual place recognition (VPR) is usually considered as a specific image retrieval problem. Limited by existing training frameworks, most deep learning-based works cannot extract sufficiently stable global features from RGB images and rely on a time-consuming re-ranking step to exploit spatial structural information for better performance. In this paper, we propose StructVPR, a novel training architecture for VPR, to enhance structural knowledge in RGB global features and thus improve feature stability in a constantly changing environment. Specifically, StructVPR uses segmentation images as a more definitive source of structural knowledge input into a CNN network and applies knowledge distillation to avoid online segmentation and inference of seg-branch in testing. Considering that not all samples contain high-quality and helpful knowledge, and some even hurt the performance of distillation, we partition samples and weigh each sample's distillation loss to enhance the expected knowledge precisely. Finally, StructVPR achieves impressive performance on several benchmarks using only global retrieval and even outperforms many two-stage approaches by a large margin. After adding additional re-ranking, ours achieves state-of-the-art performance while maintaining a low computational cost.
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Path planning in the multi-robot system refers to calculating a set of actions for each robot, which will move each robot to its goal without conflicting with other robots. Lately, the research topic has received significant attention for its extensive applications, such as airport ground, drone swarms, and automatic warehouses. Despite these available research results, most of the existing investigations are concerned with the cases of robots with a fixed movement speed without considering uncertainty. Therefore, in this work, we study the problem of path-planning in the multi-robot automatic warehouse context, which considers the time-varying and uncertain robots' movement speed. Specifically, the path-planning module searches a path with as few conflicts as possible for a single agent by calculating traffic cost based on customarily distributed conflict probability and combining it with the classic A* algorithm. However, this probability-based method cannot eliminate all conflicts, and speed's uncertainty will constantly cause new conflicts. As a supplement, we propose the other two modules. The conflict detection and re-planning module chooses objects requiring re-planning paths from the agents involved in different types of conflicts periodically by our designed rules. Also, at each step, the scheduling module fills up the agent's preserved queue and decides who has a higher priority when the same element is assigned to two agents simultaneously. Finally, we compare the proposed algorithm with other algorithms from academia and industry, and the results show that the proposed method is validated as the best performance.
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Recently, webly supervised learning (WSL) has been studied to leverage numerous and accessible data from the Internet. Most existing methods focus on learning noise-robust models from web images while neglecting the performance drop caused by the differences between web domain and real-world domain. However, only by tackling the performance gap above can we fully exploit the practical value of web datasets. To this end, we propose a Few-shot guided Prototypical (FoPro) representation learning method, which only needs a few labeled examples from reality and can significantly improve the performance in the real-world domain. Specifically, we initialize each class center with few-shot real-world data as the ``realistic" prototype. Then, the intra-class distance between web instances and ``realistic" prototypes is narrowed by contrastive learning. Finally, we measure image-prototype distance with a learnable metric. Prototypes are polished by adjacent high-quality web images and involved in removing distant out-of-distribution samples. In experiments, FoPro is trained on web datasets with a few real-world examples guided and evaluated on real-world datasets. Our method achieves the state-of-the-art performance on three fine-grained datasets and two large-scale datasets. Compared with existing WSL methods under the same few-shot settings, FoPro still excels in real-world generalization. Code is available at https://github.com/yuleiqin/fopro.
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Object goal navigation (ObjectNav) in unseen environments is a fundamental task for Embodied AI. Agents in existing works learn ObjectNav policies based on 2D maps, scene graphs, or image sequences. Considering this task happens in 3D space, a 3D-aware agent can advance its ObjectNav capability via learning from fine-grained spatial information. However, leveraging 3D scene representation can be prohibitively unpractical for policy learning in this floor-level task, due to low sample efficiency and expensive computational cost. In this work, we propose a framework for the challenging 3D-aware ObjectNav based on two straightforward sub-policies. The two sub-polices, namely corner-guided exploration policy and category-aware identification policy, simultaneously perform by utilizing online fused 3D points as observation. Through extensive experiments, we show that this framework can dramatically improve the performance in ObjectNav through learning from 3D scene representation. Our framework achieves the best performance among all modular-based methods on the Matterport3D and Gibson datasets, while requiring (up to 30x) less computational cost for training.
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Privacy in AI remains a topic that draws attention from researchers and the general public in recent years. As one way to implement privacy-preserving AI, differentially private learning is a framework that enables AI models to use differential privacy (DP). To achieve DP in the learning process, existing algorithms typically limit the magnitude of gradients with a constant clipping, which requires carefully tuned due to its significant impact on model performance. As a solution to this issue, latest works NSGD and Auto-S innovatively propose to use normalization instead of clipping to avoid hyperparameter tuning. However, normalization-based approaches like NSGD and Auto-S rely on a monotonic weight function, which imposes excessive weight on small gradient samples and introduces extra deviation to the update. In this paper, we propose a Differentially Private Per-Sample Adaptive Clipping (DP-PSAC) algorithm based on a non-monotonic adaptive weight function, which guarantees privacy without the typical hyperparameter tuning process of using a constant clipping while significantly reducing the deviation between the update and true batch-averaged gradient. We provide a rigorous theoretical convergence analysis and show that with convergence rate at the same order, the proposed algorithm achieves a lower non-vanishing bound, which is maintained over training iterations, compared with NSGD/Auto-S. In addition, through extensive experimental evaluation, we show that DP-PSAC outperforms or matches the state-of-the-art methods on multiple main-stream vision and language tasks.
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