Various types of Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) methods have been developed, assuming that agents' policies are based on true states. Recent works have improved the robustness of MARL under uncertainties from the reward, transition probability, or other partners' policies. However, in real-world multi-agent systems, state estimations may be perturbed by sensor measurement noise or even adversaries. Agents' policies trained with only true state information will deviate from optimal solutions when facing adversarial state perturbations during execution. MARL under adversarial state perturbations has limited study. Hence, in this work, we propose a State-Adversarial Markov Game (SAMG) and make the first attempt to study the fundamental properties of MARL under state uncertainties. We prove that the optimal agent policy and the robust Nash equilibrium do not always exist for an SAMG. Instead, we define the solution concept, robust agent policy, of the proposed SAMG under adversarial state perturbations, where agents want to maximize the worst-case expected state value. We then design a gradient descent ascent-based robust MARL algorithm to learn the robust policies for the MARL agents. Our experiments show that adversarial state perturbations decrease agents' rewards for several baselines from the existing literature, while our algorithm outperforms baselines with state perturbations and significantly improves the robustness of the MARL policies under state uncertainties.
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