We propose eXtensible Prompt (X-Prompt) for prompting a large language model (LLM) beyond natural language (NL). X-Prompt instructs an LLM with not only NL but also an extensible vocabulary of imaginary words that are introduced to help represent what NL words hardly describe, allowing a prompt to be more descriptive. Like NL prompts, X-Prompt is out-of-distribution (OOD) robust, for which we propose context-guided learning with prompt augmentation to learn its imaginary words for general usability, enabling them to use in different prompt contexts for fine-grain specifications. The promising results of X-Prompt demonstrate its potential of approaching advanced interaction between humans and LLMs to bridge their communication gap.
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Path planning in the multi-robot system refers to calculating a set of actions for each robot, which will move each robot to its goal without conflicting with other robots. Lately, the research topic has received significant attention for its extensive applications, such as airport ground, drone swarms, and automatic warehouses. Despite these available research results, most of the existing investigations are concerned with the cases of robots with a fixed movement speed without considering uncertainty. Therefore, in this work, we study the problem of path-planning in the multi-robot automatic warehouse context, which considers the time-varying and uncertain robots' movement speed. Specifically, the path-planning module searches a path with as few conflicts as possible for a single agent by calculating traffic cost based on customarily distributed conflict probability and combining it with the classic A* algorithm. However, this probability-based method cannot eliminate all conflicts, and speed's uncertainty will constantly cause new conflicts. As a supplement, we propose the other two modules. The conflict detection and re-planning module chooses objects requiring re-planning paths from the agents involved in different types of conflicts periodically by our designed rules. Also, at each step, the scheduling module fills up the agent's preserved queue and decides who has a higher priority when the same element is assigned to two agents simultaneously. Finally, we compare the proposed algorithm with other algorithms from academia and industry, and the results show that the proposed method is validated as the best performance.
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It is well believed that the higher uncertainty in a word of the caption, the more inter-correlated context information is required to determine it. However, current image captioning methods usually consider the generation of all words in a sentence sequentially and equally. In this paper, we propose an uncertainty-aware image captioning framework, which parallelly and iteratively operates insertion of discontinuous candidate words between existing words from easy to difficult until converged. We hypothesize that high-uncertainty words in a sentence need more prior information to make a correct decision and should be produced at a later stage. The resulting non-autoregressive hierarchy makes the caption generation explainable and intuitive. Specifically, we utilize an image-conditioned bag-of-word model to measure the word uncertainty and apply a dynamic programming algorithm to construct the training pairs. During inference, we devise an uncertainty-adaptive parallel beam search technique that yields an empirically logarithmic time complexity. Extensive experiments on the MS COCO benchmark reveal that our approach outperforms the strong baseline and related methods on both captioning quality as well as decoding speed.
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Multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) suffers from the non-stationarity problem, which is the ever-changing targets at every iteration when multiple agents update their policies at the same time. Starting from first principle, in this paper, we manage to solve the non-stationarity problem by proposing bidirectional action-dependent Q-learning (ACE). Central to the development of ACE is the sequential decision-making process wherein only one agent is allowed to take action at one time. Within this process, each agent maximizes its value function given the actions taken by the preceding agents at the inference stage. In the learning phase, each agent minimizes the TD error that is dependent on how the subsequent agents have reacted to their chosen action. Given the design of bidirectional dependency, ACE effectively turns a multiagent MDP into a single-agent MDP. We implement the ACE framework by identifying the proper network representation to formulate the action dependency, so that the sequential decision process is computed implicitly in one forward pass. To validate ACE, we compare it with strong baselines on two MARL benchmarks. Empirical experiments demonstrate that ACE outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms on Google Research Football and StarCraft Multi-Agent Challenge by a large margin. In particular, on SMAC tasks, ACE achieves 100% success rate on almost all the hard and super-hard maps. We further study extensive research problems regarding ACE, including extension, generalization, and practicability. Code is made available to facilitate further research.
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For saving cost, many deep neural networks (DNNs) are trained on third-party datasets downloaded from internet, which enables attacker to implant backdoor into DNNs. In 2D domain, inherent structures of different image formats are similar. Hence, backdoor attack designed for one image format will suite for others. However, when it comes to 3D world, there is a huge disparity among different 3D data structures. As a result, backdoor pattern designed for one certain 3D data structure will be disable for other data structures of the same 3D scene. Therefore, this paper designs a uniform backdoor pattern: NRBdoor (Noisy Rotation Backdoor) which is able to adapt for heterogeneous 3D data structures. Specifically, we start from the unit rotation and then search for the optimal pattern by noise generation and selection process. The proposed NRBdoor is natural and imperceptible, since rotation is a common operation which usually contains noise due to both the miss match between a pair of points and the sensor calibration error for real-world 3D scene. Extensive experiments on 3D mesh and point cloud show that the proposed NRBdoor achieves state-of-the-art performance, with negligible shape variation.
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Arbitrary style transfer (AST) transfers arbitrary artistic styles onto content images. Despite the recent rapid progress, existing AST methods are either incapable or too slow to run at ultra-resolutions (e.g., 4K) with limited resources, which heavily hinders their further applications. In this paper, we tackle this dilemma by learning a straightforward and lightweight model, dubbed MicroAST. The key insight is to completely abandon the use of cumbersome pre-trained Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (e.g., VGG) at inference. Instead, we design two micro encoders (content and style encoders) and one micro decoder for style transfer. The content encoder aims at extracting the main structure of the content image. The style encoder, coupled with a modulator, encodes the style image into learnable dual-modulation signals that modulate both intermediate features and convolutional filters of the decoder, thus injecting more sophisticated and flexible style signals to guide the stylizations. In addition, to boost the ability of the style encoder to extract more distinct and representative style signals, we also introduce a new style signal contrastive loss in our model. Compared to the state of the art, our MicroAST not only produces visually superior results but also is 5-73 times smaller and 6-18 times faster, for the first time enabling super-fast (about 0.5 seconds) AST at 4K ultra-resolutions. Code is available at https://github.com/EndyWon/MicroAST.
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Visual anomaly detection plays a crucial role in not only manufacturing inspection to find defects of products during manufacturing processes, but also maintenance inspection to keep equipment in optimum working condition particularly outdoors. Due to the scarcity of the defective samples, unsupervised anomaly detection has attracted great attention in recent years. However, existing datasets for unsupervised anomaly detection are biased towards manufacturing inspection, not considering maintenance inspection which is usually conducted under outdoor uncontrolled environment such as varying camera viewpoints, messy background and degradation of object surface after long-term working. We focus on outdoor maintenance inspection and contribute a comprehensive Maintenance Inspection Anomaly Detection (MIAD) dataset which contains more than 100K high-resolution color images in various outdoor industrial scenarios. This dataset is generated by a 3D graphics software and covers both surface and logical anomalies with pixel-precise ground truth. Extensive evaluations of representative algorithms for unsupervised anomaly detection are conducted, and we expect MIAD and corresponding experimental results can inspire research community in outdoor unsupervised anomaly detection tasks. Worthwhile and related future work can be spawned from our new dataset.
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Point cloud completion, as the upstream procedure of 3D recognition and segmentation, has become an essential part of many tasks such as navigation and scene understanding. While various point cloud completion models have demonstrated their powerful capabilities, their robustness against adversarial attacks, which have been proven to be fatally malicious towards deep neural networks, remains unknown. In addition, existing attack approaches towards point cloud classifiers cannot be applied to the completion models due to different output forms and attack purposes. In order to evaluate the robustness of the completion models, we propose PointCA, the first adversarial attack against 3D point cloud completion models. PointCA can generate adversarial point clouds that maintain high similarity with the original ones, while being completed as another object with totally different semantic information. Specifically, we minimize the representation discrepancy between the adversarial example and the target point set to jointly explore the adversarial point clouds in the geometry space and the feature space. Furthermore, to launch a stealthier attack, we innovatively employ the neighbourhood density information to tailor the perturbation constraint, leading to geometry-aware and distribution-adaptive modifications for each point. Extensive experiments against different premier point cloud completion networks show that PointCA can cause a performance degradation from 77.9% to 16.7%, with the structure chamfer distance kept below 0.01. We conclude that existing completion models are severely vulnerable to adversarial examples, and state-of-the-art defenses for point cloud classification will be partially invalid when applied to incomplete and uneven point cloud data.
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3D object detection received increasing attention in autonomous driving recently. Objects in 3D scenes are distributed with diverse orientations. Ordinary detectors do not explicitly model the variations of rotation and reflection transformations. Consequently, large networks and extensive data augmentation are required for robust detection. Recent equivariant networks explicitly model the transformation variations by applying shared networks on multiple transformed point clouds, showing great potential in object geometry modeling. However, it is difficult to apply such networks to 3D object detection in autonomous driving due to its large computation cost and slow reasoning speed. In this work, we present TED, an efficient Transformation-Equivariant 3D Detector to overcome the computation cost and speed issues. TED first applies a sparse convolution backbone to extract multi-channel transformation-equivariant voxel features; and then aligns and aggregates these equivariant features into lightweight and compact representations for high-performance 3D object detection. On the highly competitive KITTI 3D car detection leaderboard, TED ranked 1st among all submissions with competitive efficiency.
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Strong lensing in galaxy clusters probes properties of dense cores of dark matter halos in mass, studies the distant universe at flux levels and spatial resolutions otherwise unavailable, and constrains cosmological models independently. The next-generation large scale sky imaging surveys are expected to discover thousands of cluster-scale strong lenses, which would lead to unprecedented opportunities for applying cluster-scale strong lenses to solve astrophysical and cosmological problems. However, the large dataset challenges astronomers to identify and extract strong lensing signals, particularly strongly lensed arcs, because of their complexity and variety. Hence, we propose a framework to detect cluster-scale strongly lensed arcs, which contains a transformer-based detection algorithm and an image simulation algorithm. We embed prior information of strongly lensed arcs at cluster-scale into the training data through simulation and then train the detection algorithm with simulated images. We use the trained transformer to detect strongly lensed arcs from simulated and real data. Results show that our approach could achieve 99.63 % accuracy rate, 90.32 % recall rate, 85.37 % precision rate and 0.23 % false positive rate in detection of strongly lensed arcs from simulated images and could detect almost all strongly lensed arcs in real observation images. Besides, with an interpretation method, we have shown that our method could identify important information embedded in simulated data. Next step, to test the reliability and usability of our approach, we will apply it to available observations (e.g., DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys) and simulated data of upcoming large-scale sky surveys, such as the Euclid and the CSST.
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