We consider an offline reinforcement learning (RL) setting where the agent need to learn from a dataset collected by rolling out multiple behavior policies. There are two challenges for this setting: 1) The optimal trade-off between optimizing the RL signal and the behavior cloning (BC) signal changes on different states due to the variation of the action coverage induced by different behavior policies. Previous methods fail to handle this by only controlling the global trade-off. 2) For a given state, the action distribution generated by different behavior policies may have multiple modes. The BC regularizers in many previous methods are mean-seeking, resulting in policies that select out-of-distribution (OOD) actions in the middle of the modes. In this paper, we address both challenges by using adaptively weighted reverse Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence as the BC regularizer based on the TD3 algorithm. Our method not only trades off the RL and BC signals with per-state weights (i.e., strong BC regularization on the states with narrow action coverage, and vice versa) but also avoids selecting OOD actions thanks to the mode-seeking property of reverse KL. Empirically, our algorithm can outperform existing offline RL algorithms in the MuJoCo locomotion tasks with the standard D4RL datasets as well as the mixed datasets that combine the standard datasets.
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In this paper, we propose a robust 3D detector, named Cross Modal Transformer (CMT), for end-to-end 3D multi-modal detection. Without explicit view transformation, CMT takes the image and point clouds tokens as inputs and directly outputs accurate 3D bounding boxes. The spatial alignment of multi-modal tokens is performed implicitly, by encoding the 3D points into multi-modal features. The core design of CMT is quite simple while its performance is impressive. CMT obtains 73.0% NDS on nuScenes benchmark. Moreover, CMT has a strong robustness even if the LiDAR is missing. Code will be released at https://github.com/junjie18/CMT.
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Dataset distillation has emerged as a prominent technique to improve data efficiency when training machine learning models. It encapsulates the knowledge from a large dataset into a smaller synthetic dataset. A model trained on this smaller distilled dataset can attain comparable performance to a model trained on the original training dataset. However, the existing dataset distillation techniques mainly aim at achieving the best trade-off between resource usage efficiency and model utility. The security risks stemming from them have not been explored. This study performs the first backdoor attack against the models trained on the data distilled by dataset distillation models in the image domain. Concretely, we inject triggers into the synthetic data during the distillation procedure rather than during the model training stage, where all previous attacks are performed. We propose two types of backdoor attacks, namely NAIVEATTACK and DOORPING. NAIVEATTACK simply adds triggers to the raw data at the initial distillation phase, while DOORPING iteratively updates the triggers during the entire distillation procedure. We conduct extensive evaluations on multiple datasets, architectures, and dataset distillation techniques. Empirical evaluation shows that NAIVEATTACK achieves decent attack success rate (ASR) scores in some cases, while DOORPING reaches higher ASR scores (close to 1.0) in all cases. Furthermore, we conduct a comprehensive ablation study to analyze the factors that may affect the attack performance. Finally, we evaluate multiple defense mechanisms against our backdoor attacks and show that our attacks can practically circumvent these defense mechanisms.
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Few Shot Instance Segmentation (FSIS) requires models to detect and segment novel classes with limited several support examples. In this work, we explore a simple yet unified solution for FSIS as well as its incremental variants, and introduce a new framework named Reference Twice (RefT) to fully explore the relationship between support/query features based on a Transformer-like framework. Our key insights are two folds: Firstly, with the aid of support masks, we can generate dynamic class centers more appropriately to re-weight query features. Secondly, we find that support object queries have already encoded key factors after base training. In this way, the query features can be enhanced twice from two aspects, i.e., feature-level and instance-level. In particular, we firstly design a mask-based dynamic weighting module to enhance support features and then propose to link object queries for better calibration via cross-attention. After the above steps, the novel classes can be improved significantly over our strong baseline. Additionally, our new framework can be easily extended to incremental FSIS with minor modification. When benchmarking results on the COCO dataset for FSIS, gFSIS, and iFSIS settings, our method achieves a competitive performance compared to existing approaches across different shots, e.g., we boost nAP by noticeable +8.2/+9.4 over the current state-of-the-art FSIS method for 10/30-shot. We further demonstrate the superiority of our approach on Few Shot Object Detection. Code and model will be available.
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This paper focuses on designing efficient models with low parameters and FLOPs for dense predictions. Even though CNN-based lightweight methods have achieved stunning results after years of research, trading-off model accuracy and constrained resources still need further improvements. This work rethinks the essential unity of efficient Inverted Residual Block in MobileNetv2 and effective Transformer in ViT, inductively abstracting a general concept of Meta-Mobile Block, and we argue that the specific instantiation is very important to model performance though sharing the same framework. Motivated by this phenomenon, we deduce a simple yet efficient modern \textbf{I}nverted \textbf{R}esidual \textbf{M}obile \textbf{B}lock (iRMB) for mobile applications, which absorbs CNN-like efficiency to model short-distance dependency and Transformer-like dynamic modeling capability to learn long-distance interactions. Furthermore, we design a ResNet-like 4-phase \textbf{E}fficient \textbf{MO}del (EMO) based only on a series of iRMBs for dense applications. Massive experiments on ImageNet-1K, COCO2017, and ADE20K benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of our EMO over state-of-the-art methods, \eg, our EMO-1M/2M/5M achieve 71.5, 75.1, and 78.4 Top-1 that surpass \textbf{SoTA} CNN-/Transformer-based models, while trading-off the model accuracy and efficiency well.
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Benefiting from the intrinsic supervision information exploitation capability, contrastive learning has achieved promising performance in the field of deep graph clustering recently. However, we observe that two drawbacks of the positive and negative sample construction mechanisms limit the performance of existing algorithms from further improvement. 1) The quality of positive samples heavily depends on the carefully designed data augmentations, while inappropriate data augmentations would easily lead to the semantic drift and indiscriminative positive samples. 2) The constructed negative samples are not reliable for ignoring important clustering information. To solve these problems, we propose a Cluster-guided Contrastive deep Graph Clustering network (CCGC) by mining the intrinsic supervision information in the high-confidence clustering results. Specifically, instead of conducting complex node or edge perturbation, we construct two views of the graph by designing special Siamese encoders whose weights are not shared between the sibling sub-networks. Then, guided by the high-confidence clustering information, we carefully select and construct the positive samples from the same high-confidence cluster in two views. Moreover, to construct semantic meaningful negative sample pairs, we regard the centers of different high-confidence clusters as negative samples, thus improving the discriminative capability and reliability of the constructed sample pairs. Lastly, we design an objective function to pull close the samples from the same cluster while pushing away those from other clusters by maximizing and minimizing the cross-view cosine similarity between positive and negative samples. Extensive experimental results on six datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of CCGC compared with the existing state-of-the-art algorithms.
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As one of the prevalent methods to achieve automation systems, Imitation Learning (IL) presents a promising performance in a wide range of domains. However, despite the considerable improvement in policy performance, the corresponding research on the explainability of IL models is still limited. Inspired by the recent approaches in explainable artificial intelligence methods, we proposed a model-agnostic explaining framework for IL models called R2RISE. R2RISE aims to explain the overall policy performance with respect to the frames in demonstrations. It iteratively retrains the black-box IL model from the randomized masked demonstrations and uses the conventional evaluation outcome environment returns as the coefficient to build an importance map. We also conducted experiments to investigate three major questions concerning frames' importance equality, the effectiveness of the importance map, and connections between importance maps from different IL models. The result shows that R2RISE successfully distinguishes important frames from the demonstrations.
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In this paper, we study the problem of knowledge-intensive text-to-SQL, in which domain knowledge is necessary to parse expert questions into SQL queries over domain-specific tables. We formalize this scenario by building a new Chinese benchmark KnowSQL consisting of domain-specific questions covering various domains. We then address this problem by presenting formulaic knowledge, rather than by annotating additional data examples. More concretely, we construct a formulaic knowledge bank as a domain knowledge base and propose a framework (ReGrouP) to leverage this formulaic knowledge during parsing. Experiments using ReGrouP demonstrate a significant 28.2% improvement overall on KnowSQL.
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Various datasets have been proposed for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and related problems. Existing datasets often include small environments, have incomplete ground truth, or lack important sensor data, such as depth and infrared images. We propose an easy-to-use framework for acquiring building-scale 3D reconstruction using a consumer depth camera. Unlike complex and expensive acquisition setups, our system enables crowd-sourcing, which can greatly benefit data-hungry algorithms. Compared to similar systems, we utilize raw depth maps for odometry computation and loop closure refinement which results in better reconstructions. We acquire a building-scale 3D dataset (BS3D) and demonstrate its value by training an improved monocular depth estimation model. As a unique experiment, we benchmark visual-inertial odometry methods using both color and active infrared images.
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To generate high quality rendering images for real time applications, it is often to trace only a few samples-per-pixel (spp) at a lower resolution and then supersample to the high resolution. Based on the observation that the rendered pixels at a low resolution are typically highly aliased, we present a novel method for neural supersampling based on ray tracing 1/4-spp samples at the high resolution. Our key insight is that the ray-traced samples at the target resolution are accurate and reliable, which makes the supersampling an interpolation problem. We present a mask-reinforced neural network to reconstruct and interpolate high-quality image sequences. First, a novel temporal accumulation network is introduced to compute the correlation between current and previous features to significantly improve their temporal stability. Then a reconstruct network based on a multi-scale U-Net with skip connections is adopted for reconstruction and generation of the desired high-resolution image. Experimental results and comparisons have shown that our proposed method can generate higher quality results of supersampling, without increasing the total number of ray-tracing samples, over current state-of-the-art methods.
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