从教育和研究的角度来看,关于硬件的实验是机器人技术和控制的关键方面。在过去的十年中,已经介绍了许多用于车轮机器人的开源硬件和软件框架,主要采用独轮车和类似汽车的机器人的形式,目的是使更广泛的受众访问机器人并支持控制系统开发。独轮车通常很小且便宜,因此有助于在较大的机队中进行实验,但它们不适合高速运动。类似汽车的机器人更敏捷,但通常更大且更昂贵,因此需要更多的空间和金钱资源。为了弥合这一差距,我们介绍了Chronos,这是一种具有定制开源电子设备的新型汽车的1/28比例机器人,以及CRS是用于控制和机器人技术的开源软件框架。 CRS软件框架包括实施各种最新的算法,以进行控制,估计和多机构协调。通过这项工作,我们旨在更轻松地使用硬件,并减少启动新的教育和研究项目所需的工程时间。
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We propose a novel 3D morphable model for complete human heads based on hybrid neural fields. At the core of our model lies a neural parametric representation which disentangles identity and expressions in disjoint latent spaces. To this end, we capture a person's identity in a canonical space as a signed distance field (SDF), and model facial expressions with a neural deformation field. In addition, our representation achieves high-fidelity local detail by introducing an ensemble of local fields centered around facial anchor points. To facilitate generalization, we train our model on a newly-captured dataset of over 2200 head scans from 124 different identities using a custom high-end 3D scanning setup. Our dataset significantly exceeds comparable existing datasets, both with respect to quality and completeness of geometry, averaging around 3.5M mesh faces per scan. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin in terms of fitting error and reconstruction quality.
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Federated Deep Learning frameworks can be used strategically to monitor Land Use locally and infer environmental impacts globally. Distributed data from across the world would be needed to build a global model for Land Use classification. The need for a Federated approach in this application domain would be to avoid transfer of data from distributed locations and save network bandwidth to reduce communication cost. We use a Federated UNet model for Semantic Segmentation of satellite and street view images. The novelty of the proposed architecture is the integration of Knowledge Distillation to reduce communication cost and response time. The accuracy obtained was above 95% and we also brought in a significant model compression to over 17 times and 62 times for street View and satellite images respectively. Our proposed framework has the potential to be a game-changer in real-time tracking of climate change across the planet.
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With the rise of AI in recent years and the increase in complexity of the models, the growing demand in computational resources is starting to pose a significant challenge. The need for higher compute power is being met with increasingly more potent accelerators and the use of large compute clusters. However, the gain in prediction accuracy from large models trained on distributed and accelerated systems comes at the price of a substantial increase in energy demand, and researchers have started questioning the environmental friendliness of such AI methods at scale. Consequently, energy efficiency plays an important role for AI model developers and infrastructure operators alike. The energy consumption of AI workloads depends on the model implementation and the utilized hardware. Therefore, accurate measurements of the power draw of AI workflows on different types of compute nodes is key to algorithmic improvements and the design of future compute clusters and hardware. To this end, we present measurements of the energy consumption of two typical applications of deep learning models on different types of compute nodes. Our results indicate that 1. deriving energy consumption directly from runtime is not accurate, but the consumption of the compute node needs to be considered regarding its composition; 2. neglecting accelerator hardware on mixed nodes results in overproportional inefficiency regarding energy consumption; 3. energy consumption of model training and inference should be considered separately - while training on GPUs outperforms all other node types regarding both runtime and energy consumption, inference on CPU nodes can be comparably efficient. One advantage of our approach is that the information on energy consumption is available to all users of the supercomputer, enabling an easy transfer to other workloads alongside a raise in user-awareness of energy consumption.
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We approach the problem of improving robustness of deep learning algorithms in the presence of label noise. Building upon existing label correction and co-teaching methods, we propose a novel training procedure to mitigate the memorization of noisy labels, called CrossSplit, which uses a pair of neural networks trained on two disjoint parts of the dataset. CrossSplit combines two main ingredients: (i) Cross-split label correction. The idea is that, since the model trained on one part of the data cannot memorize example-label pairs from the other part, the training labels presented to each network can be smoothly adjusted by using the predictions of its peer network; (ii) Cross-split semi-supervised training. A network trained on one part of the data also uses the unlabeled inputs of the other part. Extensive experiments on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, Tiny-ImageNet and mini-WebVision datasets demonstrate that our method can outperform the current state-of-the-art up to 90% noise ratio.
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We present AI-SDC, an integrated suite of open source Python tools to facilitate Statistical Disclosure Control (SDC) of Machine Learning (ML) models trained on confidential data prior to public release. AI-SDC combines (i) a SafeModel package that extends commonly used ML models to provide ante-hoc SDC by assessing the vulnerability of disclosure posed by the training regime; and (ii) an Attacks package that provides post-hoc SDC by rigorously assessing the empirical disclosure risk of a model through a variety of simulated attacks after training. The AI-SDC code and documentation are available under an MIT license at https://github.com/AI-SDC/AI-SDC.
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Although self-/un-supervised methods have led to rapid progress in visual representation learning, these methods generally treat objects and scenes using the same lens. In this paper, we focus on learning representations for objects and scenes that preserve the structure among them. Motivated by the observation that visually similar objects are close in the representation space, we argue that the scenes and objects should instead follow a hierarchical structure based on their compositionality. To exploit such a structure, we propose a contrastive learning framework where a Euclidean loss is used to learn object representations and a hyperbolic loss is used to encourage representations of scenes to lie close to representations of their constituent objects in a hyperbolic space. This novel hyperbolic objective encourages the scene-object hypernymy among the representations by optimizing the magnitude of their norms. We show that when pretraining on the COCO and OpenImages datasets, the hyperbolic loss improves downstream performance of several baselines across multiple datasets and tasks, including image classification, object detection, and semantic segmentation. We also show that the properties of the learned representations allow us to solve various vision tasks that involve the interaction between scenes and objects in a zero-shot fashion. Our code can be found at \url{https://github.com/shlokk/HCL/tree/main/HCL}.
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Automatic labelling of anatomical structures, such as coronary arteries, is critical for diagnosis, yet existing (non-deep learning) methods are limited by a reliance on prior topological knowledge of the expected tree-like structures. As the structure such vascular systems is often difficult to conceptualize, graph-based representations have become popular due to their ability to capture the geometric and topological properties of the morphology in an orientation-independent and abstract manner. However, graph-based learning for automated labeling of tree-like anatomical structures has received limited attention in the literature. The majority of prior studies have limitations in the entity graph construction, are dependent on topological structures, and have limited accuracy due to the anatomical variability between subjects. In this paper, we propose an intuitive graph representation method, well suited to use with 3D coordinate data obtained from angiography scans. We subsequently seek to analyze subject-specific graphs using geometric deep learning. The proposed models leverage expert annotated labels from 141 patients to learn representations of each coronary segment, while capturing the effects of anatomical variability within the training data. We investigate different variants of so-called message passing neural networks. Through extensive evaluations, our pipeline achieves a promising weighted F1-score of 0.805 for labeling coronary artery (13 classes) for a five-fold cross-validation. Considering the ability of graph models in dealing with irregular data, and their scalability for data segmentation, this work highlights the potential of such methods to provide quantitative evidence to support the decisions of medical experts.
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We propose Spatio-temporal Crop Aggregation for video representation LEarning (SCALE), a novel method that enjoys high scalability at both training and inference time. Our model builds long-range video features by learning from sets of video clip-level features extracted with a pre-trained backbone. To train the model, we propose a self-supervised objective consisting of masked clip feature prediction. We apply sparsity to both the input, by extracting a random set of video clips, and to the loss function, by only reconstructing the sparse inputs. Moreover, we use dimensionality reduction by working in the latent space of a pre-trained backbone applied to single video clips. The video representation is then obtained by taking the ensemble of the concatenation of embeddings of separate video clips with a video clip set summarization token. These techniques make our method not only extremely efficient to train, but also highly effective in transfer learning. We demonstrate that our video representation yields state-of-the-art performance with linear, non-linear, and $k$-NN probing on common action classification datasets.
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The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has put healthcare systems worldwide to their limits, resulting in increased waiting time for diagnosis and required medical assistance. With chest radiographs (CXR) being one of the most common COVID-19 diagnosis methods, many artificial intelligence tools for image-based COVID-19 detection have been developed, often trained on a small number of images from COVID-19-positive patients. Thus, the need for high-quality and well-annotated CXR image databases increased. This paper introduces POLCOVID dataset, containing chest X-ray (CXR) images of patients with COVID-19 or other-type pneumonia, and healthy individuals gathered from 15 Polish hospitals. The original radiographs are accompanied by the preprocessed images limited to the lung area and the corresponding lung masks obtained with the segmentation model. Moreover, the manually created lung masks are provided for a part of POLCOVID dataset and the other four publicly available CXR image collections. POLCOVID dataset can help in pneumonia or COVID-19 diagnosis, while the set of matched images and lung masks may serve for the development of lung segmentation solutions.
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