Deep learning (DL)-based tomographic SAR imaging algorithms are gradually being studied. Typically, they use an unfolding network to mimic the iterative calculation of the classical compressive sensing (CS)-based methods and process each range-azimuth unit individually. However, only one-dimensional features are effectively utilized in this way. The correlation between adjacent resolution units is ignored directly. To address that, we propose a new model-data-driven network to achieve tomoSAR imaging based on multi-dimensional features. Guided by the deep unfolding methodology, a two-dimensional deep unfolding imaging network is constructed. On the basis of it, we add two 2D processing modules, both convolutional encoder-decoder structures, to enhance multi-dimensional features of the imaging scene effectively. Meanwhile, to train the proposed multifeature-based imaging network, we construct a tomoSAR simulation dataset consisting entirely of simulation data of buildings. Experiments verify the effectiveness of the model. Compared with the conventional CS-based FISTA method and DL-based gamma-Net method, the result of our proposed method has better performance on completeness while having decent imaging accuracy.
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Benefiting from a relatively larger aperture's angle, and in combination with a wide transmitting bandwidth, near-field synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides a high-resolution image of a target's scattering distribution-hot spots. Meanwhile, imaging result suffers inevitable degradation from sidelobes, clutters, and noises, hindering the information retrieval of the target. To restore the image, current methods make simplified assumptions; for example, the point spread function (PSF) is spatially consistent, the target consists of sparse point scatters, etc. Thus, they achieve limited restoration performance in terms of the target's shape, especially for complex targets. To address these issues, a preliminary study is conducted on restoration with the recent promising deep learning inverse technique in this work. We reformulate the degradation model into a spatially variable complex-convolution model, where the near-field SAR's system response is considered. Adhering to it, a model-based deep learning network is designed to restore the image. A simulated degraded image dataset from multiple complex target models is constructed to validate the network. All the images are formulated using the electromagnetic simulation tool. Experiments on the dataset reveal their effectiveness. Compared with current methods, superior performance is achieved regarding the target's shape and energy estimation.
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This work focuses on 3D Radar imaging inverse problems. Current methods obtain undifferentiated results that suffer task-depended information retrieval loss and thus don't meet the task's specific demands well. For example, biased scattering energy may be acceptable for screen imaging but not for scattering diagnosis. To address this issue, we propose a new task-oriented imaging framework. The imaging principle is task-oriented through an analysis phase to obtain task's demands. The imaging model is multi-cognition regularized to embed and fulfill demands. The imaging method is designed to be general-ized, where couplings between cognitions are decoupled and solved individually with approximation and variable-splitting techniques. Tasks include scattering diagnosis, person screen imaging, and parcel screening imaging are given as examples. Experiments on data from two systems indicate that the pro-posed framework outperforms the current ones in task-depended information retrieval.
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随着卷积神经网络(CNN)的蓬勃发展,诸如VGG-16和Resnet-50之类的CNN广泛用作SAR船检测中的骨架。但是,基于CNN的骨干很难对远程依赖性进行建模,并且导致缺乏浅层特征图中缺乏足够的高质量语义信息,从而导致在复杂的背景和小型船只中的检测性能不佳。为了解决这些问题,我们提出了一种基于SWIN Transformer的SAR船检测方法,并提出了功能增强功能功能金字塔网络(FEFPN)。SWIN Transformer用作建模远程依赖性并生成层次特征图的骨架。提出了FEFPN,以进一步提高特征地图的质量,通过逐渐增强各级特征地图的语义信息,尤其是浅层中的特征地图。在SAR船检测数据集(SSDD)上进行的实验揭示了我们提出的方法的优势。
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Physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) have lately received significant attention as a representative deep learning-based technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs). Most fully connected network-based PINNs use automatic differentiation to construct loss functions that suffer from slow convergence and difficult boundary enforcement. In addition, although convolutional neural network (CNN)-based PINNs can significantly improve training efficiency, CNNs have difficulty in dealing with irregular geometries with unstructured meshes. Therefore, we propose a novel framework based on graph neural networks (GNNs) and radial basis function finite difference (RBF-FD). We introduce GNNs into physics-informed learning to better handle irregular domains with unstructured meshes. RBF-FD is used to construct a high-precision difference format of the differential equations to guide model training. Finally, we perform numerical experiments on Poisson and wave equations on irregular domains. We illustrate the generalizability, accuracy, and efficiency of the proposed algorithms on different PDE parameters, numbers of collection points, and several types of RBFs.
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In this work, we propose a semantic flow-guided two-stage framework for shape-aware face swapping, namely FlowFace. Unlike most previous methods that focus on transferring the source inner facial features but neglect facial contours, our FlowFace can transfer both of them to a target face, thus leading to more realistic face swapping. Concretely, our FlowFace consists of a face reshaping network and a face swapping network. The face reshaping network addresses the shape outline differences between the source and target faces. It first estimates a semantic flow (i.e., face shape differences) between the source and the target face, and then explicitly warps the target face shape with the estimated semantic flow. After reshaping, the face swapping network generates inner facial features that exhibit the identity of the source face. We employ a pre-trained face masked autoencoder (MAE) to extract facial features from both the source face and the target face. In contrast to previous methods that use identity embedding to preserve identity information, the features extracted by our encoder can better capture facial appearances and identity information. Then, we develop a cross-attention fusion module to adaptively fuse inner facial features from the source face with the target facial attributes, thus leading to better identity preservation. Extensive quantitative and qualitative experiments on in-the-wild faces demonstrate that our FlowFace outperforms the state-of-the-art significantly.
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Multivariate time series forecasting (MTSF) is a fundamental problem in numerous real-world applications. Recently, Transformer has become the de facto solution for MTSF, especially for the long-term cases. However, except for the one forward operation, the basic configurations in existing MTSF Transformer architectures were barely carefully verified. In this study, we point out that the current tokenization strategy in MTSF Transformer architectures ignores the token uniformity inductive bias of Transformers. Therefore, the vanilla MTSF transformer struggles to capture details in time series and presents inferior performance. Based on this observation, we make a series of evolution on the basic architecture of the vanilla MTSF transformer. We vary the flawed tokenization strategy, along with the decoder structure and embeddings. Surprisingly, the evolved simple transformer architecture is highly effective, which successfully avoids the over-smoothing phenomena in the vanilla MTSF transformer, achieves a more detailed and accurate prediction, and even substantially outperforms the state-of-the-art Transformers that are well-designed for MTSF.
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Vision transformer has demonstrated great potential in abundant vision tasks. However, it also inevitably suffers from poor generalization capability when the distribution shift occurs in testing (i.e., out-of-distribution data). To mitigate this issue, we propose a novel method, Semantic-aware Message Broadcasting (SAMB), which enables more informative and flexible feature alignment for unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA). Particularly, we study the attention module in the vision transformer and notice that the alignment space using one global class token lacks enough flexibility, where it interacts information with all image tokens in the same manner but ignores the rich semantics of different regions. In this paper, we aim to improve the richness of the alignment features by enabling semantic-aware adaptive message broadcasting. Particularly, we introduce a group of learned group tokens as nodes to aggregate the global information from all image tokens, but encourage different group tokens to adaptively focus on the message broadcasting to different semantic regions. In this way, our message broadcasting encourages the group tokens to learn more informative and diverse information for effective domain alignment. Moreover, we systematically study the effects of adversarial-based feature alignment (ADA) and pseudo-label based self-training (PST) on UDA. We find that one simple two-stage training strategy with the cooperation of ADA and PST can further improve the adaptation capability of the vision transformer. Extensive experiments on DomainNet, OfficeHome, and VisDA-2017 demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods for UDA.
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Pandemic(epidemic) modeling, aiming at disease spreading analysis, has always been a popular research topic especially following the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2019. Some representative models including SIR-based deep learning prediction models have shown satisfactory performance. However, one major drawback for them is that they fall short in their long-term predictive ability. Although graph convolutional networks (GCN) also perform well, their edge representations do not contain complete information and it can lead to biases. Another drawback is that they usually use input features which they are unable to predict. Hence, those models are unable to predict further future. We propose a model that can propagate predictions further into the future and it has better edge representations. In particular, we model the pandemic as a spatial-temporal graph whose edges represent the transition of infections and are learned by our model. We use a two-stream framework that contains GCN and recursive structures (GRU) with an attention mechanism. Our model enables mobility analysis that provides an effective toolbox for public health researchers and policy makers to predict how different lock-down strategies that actively control mobility can influence the spread of pandemics. Experiments show that our model outperforms others in its long-term predictive power. Moreover, we simulate the effects of certain policies and predict their impacts on infection control.
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Optimal Transport (OT) provides a useful geometric framework to estimate the permutation matrix under unsupervised cross-lingual word embedding (CLWE) models that pose the alignment task as a Wasserstein-Procrustes problem. However, linear programming algorithms and approximate OT solvers via Sinkhorn for computing the permutation matrix come with a significant computational burden since they scale cubically and quadratically, respectively, in the input size. This makes it slow and infeasible to compute OT distances exactly for a larger input size, resulting in a poor approximation quality of the permutation matrix and subsequently a less robust learned transfer function or mapper. This paper proposes an unsupervised projection-based CLWE model called quantized Wasserstein Procrustes (qWP). qWP relies on a quantization step of both the source and target monolingual embedding space to estimate the permutation matrix given a cheap sampling procedure. This approach substantially improves the approximation quality of empirical OT solvers given fixed computational cost. We demonstrate that qWP achieves state-of-the-art results on the Bilingual lexicon Induction (BLI) task.
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