Modern robotic systems are required to operate in challenging environments, which demand reliable localization under challenging conditions. LiDAR-based localization methods, such as the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, can suffer in geometrically uninformative environments that are known to deteriorate registration performance and push optimization toward divergence along weakly constrained directions. To overcome this issue, this work proposes i) a robust multi-category (non-)localizability detection module, and ii) a localizability-aware constrained ICP optimization module and couples both in a unified manner. The proposed localizability detection is achieved by utilizing the correspondences between the scan and the map to analyze the alignment strength against the principal directions of the optimization as part of its multi-category LiDAR localizability analysis. In the second part, this localizability analysis is then tightly integrated into the scan-to-map point cloud registration to generate drift-free pose updates along well-constrained directions. The proposed method is thoroughly evaluated and compared to state-of-the-art methods in simulation and during real-world experiments, underlying the gain in performance and reliability in LiDAR-challenging scenarios. In all experiments, the proposed framework demonstrates accurate and generalizable localizability detection and robust pose estimation without environment-specific parameter tuning.
translated by 谷歌翻译