我们研究上下文搜索,在较高维度中对二进制搜索的概括,该搜索捕获了设置,例如基于功能的动态定价。该问题的标准公式假定代理根据特定的均匀响应模型起作用。但是,实际上,某些反应可能会受到对抗的腐败。现有的算法在很大程度上取决于假定的响应模型(大约)对所有试剂的准确性,并且在存在一些此类任意错误的情况下的性能较差。当某些代理商以与基本响应模型不一致的方式行为时,我们会启动上下文搜索的研究。特别是,我们提供两种算法,一种基于多维二进制搜索方法,另一种基于梯度下降。我们表明,这些算法在没有对抗性腐败及其性能与此类代理的数量优雅地降低的情况下获得了近乎最佳的遗憾,这为在任何对抗性噪声模型中提供了第一个结果,以进行上下文搜索。我们的技术从学习理论,游戏理论,高维几何形状和凸分析中汲取灵感。
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我们考虑带有背包的土匪(从此以后,BWK),这是一种在供应/预算限制下的多臂土匪的通用模型。特别是,强盗算法需要解决一个众所周知的背包问题:找到最佳的物品包装到有限尺寸的背包中。 BWK问题是众多激励示例的普遍概括,范围从动态定价到重复拍卖,再到动态AD分配,再到网络路由和调度。尽管BWK的先前工作集中在随机版本上,但我们开创了可以在对手身上选择结果的另一个极端。与随机版本和“经典”对抗土匪相比,这是一个更加困难的问题,因为遗憾的最小化不再可行。相反,目的是最大程度地减少竞争比率:基准奖励与算法奖励的比率。我们设计了一种具有竞争比O(log t)的算法,相对于动作的最佳固定分布,其中T是时间范围;我们还证明了一个匹配的下限。关键的概念贡献是对问题的随机版本的新观点。我们为随机版本提出了一种新的算法,该算法是基于重复游戏中遗憾最小化的框架,并且与先前的工作相比,它具有更简单的分析。然后,我们为对抗版本分析此算法,并将其用作求解后者的子例程。
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This paper studies systematic exploration for reinforcement learning with rich observations and function approximation. We introduce a new model called contextual decision processes, that unifies and generalizes most prior settings. Our first contribution is a complexity measure, the Bellman rank , that we show enables tractable learning of near-optimal behavior in these processes and is naturally small for many well-studied reinforcement learning settings. Our second contribution is a new reinforcement learning algorithm that engages in systematic exploration to learn contextual decision processes with low Bellman rank. Our algorithm provably learns near-optimal behavior with a number of samples that is polynomial in all relevant parameters but independent of the number of unique observations. The approach uses Bellman error minimization with optimistic exploration and provides new insights into efficient exploration for reinforcement learning with function approximation.
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Personalized web services strive to adapt their services (advertisements, news articles, etc.) to individual users by making use of both content and user information. Despite a few recent advances, this problem remains challenging for at least two reasons. First, web service is featured with dynamically changing pools of content, rendering traditional collaborative filtering methods inapplicable. Second, the scale of most web services of practical interest calls for solutions that are both fast in learning and computation.In this work, we model personalized recommendation of news articles as a contextual bandit problem, a principled approach in which a learning algorithm sequentially selects articles to serve users based on contextual information about the users and articles, while simultaneously adapting its article-selection strategy based on user-click feedback to maximize total user clicks.The contributions of this work are three-fold. First, we propose a new, general contextual bandit algorithm that is computationally efficient and well motivated from learning theory. Second, we argue that any bandit algorithm can be reliably evaluated offline using previously recorded random traffic. Finally, using this offline evaluation method, we successfully applied our new algorithm to a Yahoo! Front Page Today Module dataset containing over 33 million events. Results showed a 12.5% click lift compared to a standard context-free bandit algorithm, and the advantage becomes even greater when data gets more scarce.
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Segmenting humans in 3D indoor scenes has become increasingly important with the rise of human-centered robotics and AR/VR applications. In this direction, we explore the tasks of 3D human semantic-, instance- and multi-human body-part segmentation. Few works have attempted to directly segment humans in point clouds (or depth maps), which is largely due to the lack of training data on humans interacting with 3D scenes. We address this challenge and propose a framework for synthesizing virtual humans in realistic 3D scenes. Synthetic point cloud data is attractive since the domain gap between real and synthetic depth is small compared to images. Our analysis of different training schemes using a combination of synthetic and realistic data shows that synthetic data for pre-training improves performance in a wide variety of segmentation tasks and models. We further propose the first end-to-end model for 3D multi-human body-part segmentation, called Human3D, that performs all the above segmentation tasks in a unified manner. Remarkably, Human3D even outperforms previous task-specific state-of-the-art methods. Finally, we manually annotate humans in test scenes from EgoBody to compare the proposed training schemes and segmentation models.
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Deep learning, especially convolutional neural networks, has triggered accelerated advancements in computer vision, bringing changes into our daily practice. Furthermore, the standardized deep learning modules (also known as backbone networks), i.e., ResNet and EfficientNet, have enabled efficient and rapid development of new computer vision solutions. Yet, deep learning methods still suffer from several drawbacks. One of the most concerning problems is the high memory and computational cost, such that dedicated computing units, typically GPUs, have to be used for training and development. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a quantifiable evaluation method, the convolutional kernel redundancy measure, which is based on perceived image differences, for guiding the network structure simplification. When applying our method to the chest X-ray image classification problem with ResNet, our method can maintain the performance of the network and reduce the number of parameters from over $23$ million to approximately $128$ thousand (reducing $99.46\%$ of the parameters).
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Biomedical named entity recognition (BioNER) seeks to automatically recognize biomedical entities in natural language text, serving as a necessary foundation for downstream text mining tasks and applications such as information extraction and question answering. Manually labeling training data for the BioNER task is costly, however, due to the significant domain expertise required for accurate annotation. The resulting data scarcity causes current BioNER approaches to be prone to overfitting, to suffer from limited generalizability, and to address a single entity type at a time (e.g., gene or disease). We therefore propose a novel all-in-one (AIO) scheme that uses external data from existing annotated resources to improve generalization. We further present AIONER, a general-purpose BioNER tool based on cutting-edge deep learning and our AIO schema. We evaluate AIONER on 14 BioNER benchmark tasks and show that AIONER is effective, robust, and compares favorably to other state-of-the-art approaches such as multi-task learning. We further demonstrate the practical utility of AIONER in three independent tasks to recognize entity types not previously seen in training data, as well as the advantages of AIONER over existing methods for processing biomedical text at a large scale (e.g., the entire PubMed data).
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We introduce KiloGram, a resource for studying abstract visual reasoning in humans and machines. Drawing on the history of tangram puzzles as stimuli in cognitive science, we build a richly annotated dataset that, with >1k distinct stimuli, is orders of magnitude larger and more diverse than prior resources. It is both visually and linguistically richer, moving beyond whole shape descriptions to include segmentation maps and part labels. We use this resource to evaluate the abstract visual reasoning capacities of recent multi-modal models. We observe that pre-trained weights demonstrate limited abstract reasoning, which dramatically improves with fine-tuning. We also observe that explicitly describing parts aids abstract reasoning for both humans and models, especially when jointly encoding the linguistic and visual inputs. KiloGram is available at https://lil.nlp.cornell.edu/kilogram .
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The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has put healthcare systems worldwide to their limits, resulting in increased waiting time for diagnosis and required medical assistance. With chest radiographs (CXR) being one of the most common COVID-19 diagnosis methods, many artificial intelligence tools for image-based COVID-19 detection have been developed, often trained on a small number of images from COVID-19-positive patients. Thus, the need for high-quality and well-annotated CXR image databases increased. This paper introduces POLCOVID dataset, containing chest X-ray (CXR) images of patients with COVID-19 or other-type pneumonia, and healthy individuals gathered from 15 Polish hospitals. The original radiographs are accompanied by the preprocessed images limited to the lung area and the corresponding lung masks obtained with the segmentation model. Moreover, the manually created lung masks are provided for a part of POLCOVID dataset and the other four publicly available CXR image collections. POLCOVID dataset can help in pneumonia or COVID-19 diagnosis, while the set of matched images and lung masks may serve for the development of lung segmentation solutions.
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Computer-aided systems in histopathology are often challenged by various sources of domain shift that impact the performance of these algorithms considerably. We investigated the potential of using self-supervised pre-training to overcome scanner-induced domain shifts for the downstream task of tumor segmentation. For this, we present the Barlow Triplets to learn scanner-invariant representations from a multi-scanner dataset with local image correspondences. We show that self-supervised pre-training successfully aligned different scanner representations, which, interestingly only results in a limited benefit for our downstream task. We thereby provide insights into the influence of scanner characteristics for downstream applications and contribute to a better understanding of why established self-supervised methods have not yet shown the same success on histopathology data as they have for natural images.
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