Array programming provides a powerful, compact, expressive syntax for accessing, manipulating, and operating on data in vectors, matrices, and higher-dimensional arrays . NumPy is the primary array programming library for the Python language [2,3,4,5]. It plays an essential role in research analysis pipelines in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, astronomy, geoscience, biology, psychology, material science, engineering, finance, and economics. For example, in astronomy, NumPy was an important part of the software stack used in the discovery of gravitational waves  and the first imaging of a black hole .Here we show how a few fundamental array concepts lead to a simple and powerful programming paradigm for organizing, exploring, and analyzing scientific data. NumPy is the foundation upon which the entire scientific Python universe is constructed. It is so pervasive that several projects, targeting audiences with specialized needs, have developed their own NumPy-like interfaces and array objects. Because of its central position in the ecosystem, NumPy increasingly plays the role of an interoperability layer between these new array computation libraries.
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