部分标签学习(PLL)是一项奇特的弱监督学习任务,其中训练样本通常与一组候选标签而不是单个地面真理相关联。尽管在该域中提出了各种标签歧义方法,但他们通常假设在许多现实世界应用中可能不存在类平衡的方案。从经验上讲,我们在面对长尾分布和部分标记的组合挑战时观察到了先前方法的退化性能。在这项工作中,我们首先确定先前工作失败的主要原因。随后,我们提出了一种新型的基于最佳运输的框架太阳能,它允许完善被歧义的标签,以匹配边缘级别的先验分布。太阳能还结合了一种新的系统机制,用于估计PLL设置下的长尾类先验分布。通过广泛的实验,与先前的最先进的PLL方法相比,太阳能在标准化基准方面表现出基本优势。代码和数据可在以下网址获得:https://github.com/hbzju/solar。
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Although synthetic aperture imaging (SAI) can achieve the seeing-through effect by blurring out off-focus foreground occlusions while recovering in-focus occluded scenes from multi-view images, its performance is often deteriorated by dense occlusions and extreme lighting conditions. To address the problem, this paper presents an Event-based SAI (E-SAI) method by relying on the asynchronous events with extremely low latency and high dynamic range acquired by an event camera. Specifically, the collected events are first refocused by a Refocus-Net module to align in-focus events while scattering out off-focus ones. Following that, a hybrid network composed of spiking neural networks (SNNs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is proposed to encode the spatio-temporal information from the refocused events and reconstruct a visual image of the occluded targets. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed E-SAI method can achieve remarkable performance in dealing with very dense occlusions and extreme lighting conditions and produce high-quality images from pure events. Codes and datasets are available at https://dvs-whu.cn/projects/esai/.
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Incorporating computed tomography (CT) reconstruction operators into differentiable pipelines has proven beneficial in many applications. Such approaches usually focus on the projection data and keep the acquisition geometry fixed. However, precise knowledge of the acquisition geometry is essential for high quality reconstruction results. In this paper, the differentiable formulation of fan-beam CT reconstruction is extended to the acquisition geometry. This allows to propagate gradient information from a loss function on the reconstructed image into the geometry parameters. As a proof-of-concept experiment, this idea is applied to rigid motion compensation. The cost function is parameterized by a trained neural network which regresses an image quality metric from the motion affected reconstruction alone. Using the proposed method, we are the first to optimize such an autofocus-inspired algorithm based on analytical gradients. The algorithm achieves a reduction in MSE by 35.5 % and an improvement in SSIM by 12.6 % over the motion affected reconstruction. Next to motion compensation, we see further use cases of our differentiable method for scanner calibration or hybrid techniques employing deep models.
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Federated learning (FL) has been recognized as a privacy-preserving distributed machine learning paradigm that enables knowledge sharing among various heterogeneous artificial intelligence (AIoT) devices through centralized global model aggregation. FL suffers from model inaccuracy and slow convergence due to the model heterogeneity of the AIoT devices involved. Although various existing methods try to solve the bottleneck of the model heterogeneity problem, most of them improve the accuracy of heterogeneous models in a coarse-grained manner, which makes it still a great challenge to deploy large-scale AIoT devices. To alleviate the negative impact of this problem and take full advantage of the diversity of each heterogeneous model, we propose an efficient framework named HierarchyFL, which uses a small amount of public data for efficient and scalable knowledge across a variety of differently structured models. By using self-distillation and our proposed ensemble library, each hierarchical model can intelligently learn from each other on cloud servers. Experimental results on various well-known datasets show that HierarchyFL can not only maximize the knowledge sharing among various heterogeneous models in large-scale AIoT systems, but also greatly improve the model performance of each involved heterogeneous AIoT device.
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We propose eXtensible Prompt (X-Prompt) for prompting a large language model (LLM) beyond natural language (NL). X-Prompt instructs an LLM with not only NL but also an extensible vocabulary of imaginary words that are introduced to help represent what NL words hardly describe, allowing a prompt to be more descriptive. Like NL prompts, X-Prompt is out-of-distribution (OOD) robust, for which we propose context-guided learning with prompt augmentation to learn its imaginary words for general usability, enabling them to use in different prompt contexts for fine-grain specifications. The promising results of X-Prompt demonstrate its potential of approaching advanced interaction between humans and LLMs to bridge their communication gap.
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Brain network provides important insights for the diagnosis of many brain disorders, and how to effectively model the brain structure has become one of the core issues in the domain of brain imaging analysis. Recently, various computational methods have been proposed to estimate the causal relationship (i.e., effective connectivity) between brain regions. Compared with traditional correlation-based methods, effective connectivity can provide the direction of information flow, which may provide additional information for the diagnosis of brain diseases. However, existing methods either ignore the fact that there is a temporal-lag in the information transmission across brain regions, or simply set the temporal-lag value between all brain regions to a fixed value. To overcome these issues, we design an effective temporal-lag neural network (termed ETLN) to simultaneously infer the causal relationships and the temporal-lag values between brain regions, which can be trained in an end-to-end manner. In addition, we also introduce three mechanisms to better guide the modeling of brain networks. The evaluation results on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Privacy in AI remains a topic that draws attention from researchers and the general public in recent years. As one way to implement privacy-preserving AI, differentially private learning is a framework that enables AI models to use differential privacy (DP). To achieve DP in the learning process, existing algorithms typically limit the magnitude of gradients with a constant clipping, which requires carefully tuned due to its significant impact on model performance. As a solution to this issue, latest works NSGD and Auto-S innovatively propose to use normalization instead of clipping to avoid hyperparameter tuning. However, normalization-based approaches like NSGD and Auto-S rely on a monotonic weight function, which imposes excessive weight on small gradient samples and introduces extra deviation to the update. In this paper, we propose a Differentially Private Per-Sample Adaptive Clipping (DP-PSAC) algorithm based on a non-monotonic adaptive weight function, which guarantees privacy without the typical hyperparameter tuning process of using a constant clipping while significantly reducing the deviation between the update and true batch-averaged gradient. We provide a rigorous theoretical convergence analysis and show that with convergence rate at the same order, the proposed algorithm achieves a lower non-vanishing bound, which is maintained over training iterations, compared with NSGD/Auto-S. In addition, through extensive experimental evaluation, we show that DP-PSAC outperforms or matches the state-of-the-art methods on multiple main-stream vision and language tasks.
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Many NLP tasks can be regarded as a selection problem from a set of options, such as classification tasks, multi-choice question answering, etc. Textual entailment (TE) has been shown as the state-of-the-art (SOTA) approach to dealing with those selection problems. TE treats input texts as premises (P), options as hypotheses (H), then handles the selection problem by modeling (P, H) pairwise. Two limitations: first, the pairwise modeling is unaware of other options, which is less intuitive since humans often determine the best options by comparing competing candidates; second, the inference process of pairwise TE is time-consuming, especially when the option space is large. To deal with the two issues, this work first proposes a contextualized TE model (Context-TE) by appending other k options as the context of the current (P, H) modeling. Context-TE is able to learn more reliable decision for the H since it considers various context. Second, we speed up Context-TE by coming up with Parallel-TE, which learns the decisions of multiple options simultaneously. Parallel-TE significantly improves the inference speed while keeping comparable performance with Context-TE. Our methods are evaluated on three tasks (ultra-fine entity typing, intent detection and multi-choice QA) that are typical selection problems with different sizes of options. Experiments show our models set new SOTA performance; particularly, Parallel-TE is faster than the pairwise TE by k times in inference. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/jiangshdd/LearningToSelect.
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Blind image super-resolution (Blind-SR) aims to recover a high-resolution (HR) image from its corresponding low-resolution (LR) input image with unknown degradations. Most of the existing works design an explicit degradation estimator for each degradation to guide SR. However, it is infeasible to provide concrete labels of multiple degradation combinations (\eg, blur, noise, jpeg compression) to supervise the degradation estimator training. In addition, these special designs for certain degradation, such as blur, impedes the models from being generalized to handle different degradations. To this end, it is necessary to design an implicit degradation estimator that can extract discriminative degradation representation for all degradations without relying on the supervision of degradation ground-truth. In this paper, we propose a Knowledge Distillation based Blind-SR network (KDSR). It consists of a knowledge distillation based implicit degradation estimator network (KD-IDE) and an efficient SR network. To learn the KDSR model, we first train a teacher network: KD-IDE$_{T}$. It takes paired HR and LR patches as inputs and is optimized with the SR network jointly. Then, we further train a student network KD-IDE$_{S}$, which only takes LR images as input and learns to extract the same implicit degradation representation (IDR) as KD-IDE$_{T}$. In addition, to fully use extracted IDR, we design a simple, strong, and efficient IDR based dynamic convolution residual block (IDR-DCRB) to build an SR network. We conduct extensive experiments under classic and real-world degradation settings. The results show that KDSR achieves SOTA performance and can generalize to various degradation processes. The source codes and pre-trained models will be released.
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This paper studies the challenging two-view 3D reconstruction in a rigorous sparse-view configuration, which is suffering from insufficient correspondences in the input image pairs for camera pose estimation. We present a novel Neural One-PlanE RANSAC framework (termed NOPE-SAC in short) that exerts excellent capability to learn one-plane pose hypotheses from 3D plane correspondences. Building on the top of a siamese plane detection network, our NOPE-SAC first generates putative plane correspondences with a coarse initial pose. It then feeds the learned 3D plane parameters of correspondences into shared MLPs to estimate the one-plane camera pose hypotheses, which are subsequently reweighed in a RANSAC manner to obtain the final camera pose. Because the neural one-plane pose minimizes the number of plane correspondences for adaptive pose hypotheses generation, it enables stable pose voting and reliable pose refinement in a few plane correspondences for the sparse-view inputs. In the experiments, we demonstrate that our NOPE-SAC significantly improves the camera pose estimation for the two-view inputs with severe viewpoint changes, setting several new state-of-the-art performances on two challenging benchmarks, i.e., MatterPort3D and ScanNet, for sparse-view 3D reconstruction. The source code is released at https://github.com/IceTTTb/NopeSAC for reproducible research.
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