关于信息检索的许多最新研究集中在如何从一项任务(通常具有丰富的监督数据)转移到有限的其他各种任务,并隐含地假设可以从一个任务概括到所有其余的任务。但是,这忽略了这样一个事实,即有许多多样化和独特的检索任务,每个任务都针对不同的搜索意图,查询和搜索域。在本文中,我们建议使用几乎没有散热的检索,每个任务都有一个简短的描述和一些示例。为了扩大一些示例的功能,我们提出了针对检索器(即将到来)的及时基本查询生成,该查询将大型语言模型(LLM)作为几个弹片查询生成器,并根据生成的数据创建特定于任务的检索器。通过LLM的概括能力提供动力,即要来源使得可以仅基于一些示例{没有自然问题或MS MARCO来训练%问题生成器或双重编码器,就可以仅基于一些示例{没有}来创建特定于任务的端到端检索。出乎意料的是,LLM提示不超过8个示例,允许双重编码器在MARCO(例如Colbert V2)上训练的大量工程模型平均在11个检索套件中超过1.2 NDCG。使用相同生成数据的进一步培训标准尺寸的重新级别可获得5.0点NDCG的改进。我们的研究确定,查询产生比以前观察到的更有效,尤其是在给出少量特定于任务知识的情况下。
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维基百科等文本知识库需要相当大的努力来保持最新和一致。虽然自动写作助手可能会缓解这一负担,但探讨了建议在外部知识基础上的建议的问题。在本文中,我们介绍了*忠实地反映了文本*(水果)中的更新信息的新颖一代任务是举办新证据的目标是更新现有文章。我们释放了Fruit-Wiki DataSet,一系列超过170k的远端监督数据,以及我们的数据生成管道和914个实例的金色评估集,其编辑被证据支持。我们为流行的发电系统以及编辑方法提供基准结果 - 根据编辑的基于T5的方法,我们介绍了确定现有技术的。我们的分析表明,开发可以忠实更新文章的开发模型需要新的神经发电模型的新功能,并打开更多新应用程序。
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已经表明,在一个域上训练的双编码器经常概括到其他域以获取检索任务。一种广泛的信念是,一个双编码器的瓶颈层,其中最终得分仅仅是查询向量和通道向量之间的点产品,它过于局限,使得双编码器是用于域外概括的有效检索模型。在本文中,我们通过缩放双编码器模型的大小{\ em同时保持固定的瓶颈嵌入尺寸固定的瓶颈的大小来挑战这一信念。令人惊讶的是,令人惊讶的是,缩放模型尺寸会对各种缩放提高检索任务,特别是对于域外泛化。实验结果表明,我们的双编码器,\ textbf {g} enovalizable \ textbf {t} eTrievers(gtr),优先级%colbert〜\ cite {khattab2020colbertt}和现有的稀疏和密集的索取Beir DataSet〜\ Cite {Thakur2021Beir}显着显着。最令人惊讶的是,我们的消融研究发现,GTR是非常数据的高效,因为它只需要10 \%MARCO监督数据,以实现最佳域的性能。所有GTR模型都在https://tfhub.dev/google/collections/gtr/1发布。
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人工智能(AI)为简化Covid-19诊断提供了有前景的替代。然而,涉及周围的安全和可信度的担忧阻碍了大规模代表性的医学数据,对临床实践中训练广泛的模型造成了相当大的挑战。为了解决这个问题,我们启动了统一的CT-Covid AI诊断计划(UCADI),其中AI模型可以在没有数据共享的联合学习框架(FL)下在每个主机机构下分发和独立地在没有数据共享的情况下在每个主机机构上执行。在这里,我们认为我们的FL模型通过大的产量(中国测试敏感性/特异性:0.973 / 0.951,英国:0.730 / 0.942),与专业放射科医师的面板实现可比性表现。我们进一步评估了持有的模型(从另外两家医院收集,留出FL)和异构(用造影材料获取)数据,提供了模型所做的决策的视觉解释,并分析了模型之间的权衡联邦培训过程中的性能和沟通成本。我们的研究基于来自位于中国和英国的23家医院的3,336名患者的9,573次胸部计算断层扫描扫描(CTS)。统称,我们的工作提出了利用联邦学习的潜在保留了数字健康的前景。
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Recent work on open domain question answering (QA) assumes strong supervision of the supporting evidence and/or assumes a blackbox information retrieval (IR) system to retrieve evidence candidates. We argue that both are suboptimal, since gold evidence is not always available, and QA is fundamentally different from IR. We show for the first time that it is possible to jointly learn the retriever and reader from question-answer string pairs and without any IR system. In this setting, evidence retrieval from all of Wikipedia is treated as a latent variable. Since this is impractical to learn from scratch, we pre-train the retriever with an Inverse Cloze Task. We evaluate on open versions of five QA datasets. On datasets where the questioner already knows the answer, a traditional IR system such as BM25 is sufficient. On datasets where a user is genuinely seeking an answer, we show that learned retrieval is crucial, outperforming BM25 by up to 19 points in exact match.
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We introduce a new language representation model called BERT, which stands for Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers. Unlike recent language representation models (Peters et al., 2018a;Radford et al., 2018), BERT is designed to pretrain deep bidirectional representations from unlabeled text by jointly conditioning on both left and right context in all layers. As a result, the pre-trained BERT model can be finetuned with just one additional output layer to create state-of-the-art models for a wide range of tasks, such as question answering and language inference, without substantial taskspecific architecture modifications.BERT is conceptually simple and empirically powerful. It obtains new state-of-the-art results on eleven natural language processing tasks, including pushing the GLUE score to 80.5% (7.7% point absolute improvement), MultiNLI accuracy to 86.7% (4.6% absolute improvement), SQuAD v1.1 question answering Test F1 to 93.2 (1.5 point absolute improvement) and SQuAD v2.0 Test F1 to 83.1 (5.1 point absolute improvement).
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Performing 3D dense captioning and visual grounding requires a common and shared understanding of the underlying multimodal relationships. However, despite some previous attempts on connecting these two related tasks with highly task-specific neural modules, it remains understudied how to explicitly depict their shared nature to learn them simultaneously. In this work, we propose UniT3D, a simple yet effective fully unified transformer-based architecture for jointly solving 3D visual grounding and dense captioning. UniT3D enables learning a strong multimodal representation across the two tasks through a supervised joint pre-training scheme with bidirectional and seq-to-seq objectives. With a generic architecture design, UniT3D allows expanding the pre-training scope to more various training sources such as the synthesized data from 2D prior knowledge to benefit 3D vision-language tasks. Extensive experiments and analysis demonstrate that UniT3D obtains significant gains for 3D dense captioning and visual grounding.
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Learning how to navigate among humans in an occluded and spatially constrained indoor environment, is a key ability required to embodied agent to be integrated into our society. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end architecture that exploits Socially-Aware Tasks (referred as to Risk and Social Compass) to inject into a reinforcement learning navigation policy the ability to infer common-sense social behaviors. To this end, our tasks exploit the notion of immediate and future dangers of collision. Furthermore, we propose an evaluation protocol specifically designed for the Social Navigation Task in simulated environments. This is done to capture fine-grained features and characteristics of the policy by analyzing the minimal unit of human-robot spatial interaction, called Encounter. We validate our approach on Gibson4+ and Habitat-Matterport3D datasets.
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Neural networks are susceptible to data inference attacks such as the membership inference attack, the adversarial model inversion attack and the attribute inference attack, where the attacker could infer useful information such as the membership, the reconstruction or the sensitive attributes of a data sample from the confidence scores predicted by the target classifier. In this paper, we propose a method, namely PURIFIER, to defend against membership inference attacks. It transforms the confidence score vectors predicted by the target classifier and makes purified confidence scores indistinguishable in individual shape, statistical distribution and prediction label between members and non-members. The experimental results show that PURIFIER helps defend membership inference attacks with high effectiveness and efficiency, outperforming previous defense methods, and also incurs negligible utility loss. Besides, our further experiments show that PURIFIER is also effective in defending adversarial model inversion attacks and attribute inference attacks. For example, the inversion error is raised about 4+ times on the Facescrub530 classifier, and the attribute inference accuracy drops significantly when PURIFIER is deployed in our experiment.
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In this paper, we propose a low error rate and real-time stereo vision system on GPU. Many stereo vision systems on GPU have been proposed to date. In those systems, the error rates and the processing speed are in trade-off relationship. We propose a real-time stereo vision system on GPU for the high resolution images. This system also maintains a low error rate compared to other fast systems. In our approach, we have implemented the cost aggregation (CA), cross-checking and median filter on GPU in order to realize the real-time processing. Its processing speed is 40 fps for 1436x992 pixels images when the maximum disparity is 145, and its error rate is the lowest among the GPU systems which are faster than 30 fps.
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