The dual-encoder has become the de facto architecture for dense retrieval. Typically, it computes the latent representations of the query and document independently, thus failing to fully capture the interactions between the query and document. To alleviate this, recent work expects to get query-informed representations of documents. During training, it expands the document with a real query, while replacing the real query with a generated pseudo query at inference. This discrepancy between training and inference makes the dense retrieval model pay more attention to the query information but ignore the document when computing the document representation. As a result, it even performs worse than the vanilla dense retrieval model, since its performance depends heavily on the relevance between the generated queries and the real query. In this paper, we propose a curriculum sampling strategy, which also resorts to the pseudo query at training and gradually increases the relevance of the generated query to the real query. In this way, the retrieval model can learn to extend its attention from the document only to both the document and query, hence getting high-quality query-informed document representations. Experimental results on several passage retrieval datasets show that our approach outperforms the previous dense retrieval methods1.
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可区分的搜索索引(DSI)是一个新的新兴范式,用于信息检索。与索引和检索是两个不同且独立的组件的传统检索体系结构不同,DSI使用单个变压器模型执行索引和检索。在本文中,我们确定并解决了当前DSI模型的重要问题:DSI索引和检索过程之间发生的数据分布不匹配。具体而言,我们认为,在索引时,当前的DSI方法学会学会在长文档文本及其标识之间建立连接,但是在检索中,向DSI模型提供了简短的查询文本以执行文档标识符的检索。当使用DSI进行跨语言检索时,此问题进一步加剧,其中文档文本和查询文本使用不同的语言。为了解决当前DSI模型的这个基本问题,我们为DSI称为DSI-QG的简单而有效的索引框架。在DSI-QG中,文档由索引时间的查询生成模型生成的许多相关查询表示。这允许DSI模型在索引时将文档标识符连接到一组查询文本,因此减轻索引和检索阶段之间存在的数据分布不匹配。流行的单语言和跨语性通过基准数据集的经验结果表明,DSI-QG明显优于原始DSI模型。
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最近结束语音合成的最新进步使得能够产生高度自然的语音。然而,训练这些模型通常需要大量的高保真语音数据,并且对于看不见的文本,合成语音的韵律相对不自然。为了解决这些问题,我们建议将基于精细的BERT基前端与基于预先训练的FastSeech2的声学模型结合起来,以改善韵律建模。在多任务学习中,预训练的伯爵在多电话消歧任务中,联合中文词组分割任务,联合中文字分割(CWS)和演讲(POS)标记任务,以及在多任务学习中的韵律结构预测(PSP)任务框架。FastSeech 2在大规模的外部数据上预先培训,这些数据很少,但更容易获得。实验结果表明,微调BERT模型和预训练的禁止轴2可以改善韵律,特别是对于那些结构复杂的句子。
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We present CodeBERT, a bimodal pre-trained model for programming language (PL) and natural language (NL). CodeBERT learns general-purpose representations that support downstream NL-PL applications such as natural language code search, code documentation generation, etc. We develop Code-BERT with Transformer-based neural architecture, and train it with a hybrid objective function that incorporates the pre-training task of replaced token detection, which is to detect plausible alternatives sampled from generators. This enables us to utilize both "bimodal" data of NL-PL pairs and "unimodal" data, where the former provides input tokens for model training while the latter helps to learn better generators. We evaluate CodeBERT on two NL-PL applications by fine-tuning model parameters. Results show that CodeBERT achieves state-of-the-art performance on both natural language code search and code documentation generation. Furthermore, to investigate what type of knowledge is learned in CodeBERT, we construct a dataset for NL-PL probing, and evaluate in a zero-shot setting where parameters of pre-trained models are fixed. Results show that CodeBERT performs better than previous pre-trained models on NL-PL probing. 1
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We aim to bridge the gap between our common-sense few-sample human learning and large-data machine learning. We derive a theory of human-like few-shot learning from von-Neuman-Landauer's principle. modelling human learning is difficult as how people learn varies from one to another. Under commonly accepted definitions, we prove that all human or animal few-shot learning, and major models including Free Energy Principle and Bayesian Program Learning that model such learning, approximate our theory, under Church-Turing thesis. We find that deep generative model like variational autoencoder (VAE) can be used to approximate our theory and perform significantly better than baseline models including deep neural networks, for image recognition, low resource language processing, and character recognition.
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Brain midline shift (MLS) is one of the most critical factors to be considered for clinical diagnosis and treatment decision-making for intracranial hemorrhage. Existing computational methods on MLS quantification not only require intensive labeling in millimeter-level measurement but also suffer from poor performance due to their dependence on specific landmarks or simplified anatomical assumptions. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised framework to accurately measure the scale of MLS from head CT scans. We formulate the MLS measurement task as a deformation estimation problem and solve it using a few MLS slices with sparse labels. Meanwhile, with the help of diffusion models, we are able to use a great number of unlabeled MLS data and 2793 non-MLS cases for representation learning and regularization. The extracted representation reflects how the image is different from a non-MLS image and regularization serves an important role in the sparse-to-dense refinement of the deformation field. Our experiment on a real clinical brain hemorrhage dataset has achieved state-of-the-art performance and can generate interpretable deformation fields.
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Existing measures and representations for trajectories have two longstanding fundamental shortcomings, i.e., they are computationally expensive and they can not guarantee the `uniqueness' property of a distance function: dist(X,Y) = 0 if and only if X=Y, where $X$ and $Y$ are two trajectories. This paper proposes a simple yet powerful way to represent trajectories and measure the similarity between two trajectories using a distributional kernel to address these shortcomings. It is a principled approach based on kernel mean embedding which has a strong theoretical underpinning. It has three distinctive features in comparison with existing approaches. (1) A distributional kernel is used for the very first time for trajectory representation and similarity measurement. (2) It does not rely on point-to-point distances which are used in most existing distances for trajectories. (3) It requires no learning, unlike existing learning and deep learning approaches. We show the generality of this new approach in three applications: (a) trajectory anomaly detection, (b) anomalous sub-trajectory detection, and (c) trajectory pattern mining. We identify that the distributional kernel has (i) a unique data-dependent property and the above uniqueness property which are the key factors that lead to its superior task-specific performance; and (ii) runtime orders of magnitude faster than existing distance measures.
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Recent studies have shown that using an external Language Model (LM) benefits the end-to-end Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR). However, predicting tokens that appear less frequently in the training set is still quite challenging. The long-tail prediction problems have been widely studied in many applications, but only been addressed by a few studies for ASR and LMs. In this paper, we propose a new memory augmented lookup dictionary based Transformer architecture for LM. The newly introduced lookup dictionary incorporates rich contextual information in training set, which is vital to correctly predict long-tail tokens. With intensive experiments on Chinese and English data sets, our proposed method is proved to outperform the baseline Transformer LM by a great margin on both word/character error rate and tail tokens error rate. This is achieved without impact on the decoding efficiency. Overall, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method in boosting the ASR decoding performance, especially for long-tail tokens.
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Detecting abrupt changes in data distribution is one of the most significant tasks in streaming data analysis. Although many unsupervised Change-Point Detection (CPD) methods have been proposed recently to identify those changes, they still suffer from missing subtle changes, poor scalability, or/and sensitive to noise points. To meet these challenges, we are the first to generalise the CPD problem as a special case of the Change-Interval Detection (CID) problem. Then we propose a CID method, named iCID, based on a recent Isolation Distributional Kernel (IDK). iCID identifies the change interval if there is a high dissimilarity score between two non-homogeneous temporal adjacent intervals. The data-dependent property and finite feature map of IDK enabled iCID to efficiently identify various types of change points in data streams with the tolerance of noise points. Moreover, the proposed online and offline versions of iCID have the ability to optimise key parameter settings. The effectiveness and efficiency of iCID have been systematically verified on both synthetic and real-world datasets.
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Video-language pre-training has advanced the performance of various downstream video-language tasks. However, most previous methods directly inherit or adapt typical image-language pre-training paradigms to video-language pre-training, thus not fully exploiting the unique characteristic of video, i.e., temporal. In this paper, we propose a Hierarchical Temporal-Aware video-language pre-training framework, HiTeA, with two novel pre-training tasks for modeling cross-modal alignment between moments and texts as well as the temporal relations of video-text pairs. Specifically, we propose a cross-modal moment exploration task to explore moments in videos, which results in detailed video moment representation. Besides, the inherent temporal relations are captured by aligning video-text pairs as a whole in different time resolutions with multi-modal temporal relation exploration task. Furthermore, we introduce the shuffling test to evaluate the temporal reliance of datasets and video-language pre-training models. We achieve state-of-the-art results on 15 well-established video-language understanding and generation tasks, especially on temporal-oriented datasets (e.g., SSv2-Template and SSv2-Label) with 8.6% and 11.1% improvement respectively. HiTeA also demonstrates strong generalization ability when directly transferred to downstream tasks in a zero-shot manner. Models and demo will be available on ModelScope.
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