放射线学使用定量医学成像特征来预测临床结果。目前,在新的临床应用中,必须通过启发式试验和纠正过程手动完成各种可用选项的最佳放射组方法。在这项研究中,我们提出了一个框架,以自动优化每个应用程序的放射线工作流程的构建。为此,我们将放射线学作为模块化工作流程,并为每个组件包含大量的常见算法。为了优化每个应用程序的工作流程,我们使用随机搜索和结合使用自动化机器学习。我们在十二个不同的临床应用中评估我们的方法,从而在曲线下导致以下区域:1)脂肪肉瘤(0.83); 2)脱粘型纤维瘤病(0.82); 3)原发性肝肿瘤(0.80); 4)胃肠道肿瘤(0.77); 5)结直肠肝转移(0.61); 6)黑色素瘤转移(0.45); 7)肝细胞癌(0.75); 8)肠系膜纤维化(0.80); 9)前列腺癌(0.72); 10)神经胶质瘤(0.71); 11)阿尔茨海默氏病(0.87);和12)头颈癌(0.84)。我们表明,我们的框架具有比较人类专家的竞争性能,优于放射线基线,并且表现相似或优于贝叶斯优化和更高级的合奏方法。最后,我们的方法完全自动优化了放射线工作流的构建,从而简化了在新应用程序中对放射线生物标志物的搜索。为了促进可重复性和未来的研究,我们公开发布了六个数据集,框架的软件实施以及重现这项研究的代码。
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While the brain connectivity network can inform the understanding and diagnosis of developmental dyslexia, its cause-effect relationships have not yet enough been examined. Employing electroencephalography signals and band-limited white noise stimulus at 4.8 Hz (prosodic-syllabic frequency), we measure the phase Granger causalities among channels to identify differences between dyslexic learners and controls, thereby proposing a method to calculate directional connectivity. As causal relationships run in both directions, we explore three scenarios, namely channels' activity as sources, as sinks, and in total. Our proposed method can be used for both classification and exploratory analysis. In all scenarios, we find confirmation of the established right-lateralized Theta sampling network anomaly, in line with the temporal sampling framework's assumption of oscillatory differences in the Theta and Gamma bands. Further, we show that this anomaly primarily occurs in the causal relationships of channels acting as sinks, where it is significantly more pronounced than when only total activity is observed. In the sink scenario, our classifier obtains 0.84 and 0.88 accuracy and 0.87 and 0.93 AUC for the Theta and Gamma bands, respectively.
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A "heart attack" or myocardial infarction (MI), occurs when an artery supplying blood to the heart is abruptly occluded. The "gold standard" method for imaging MI is Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), with intravenously administered gadolinium-based contrast (late gadolinium enhancement). However, no "gold standard" fully automated method for the quantification of MI exists. In this work, we propose an end-to-end fully automatic system (MyI-Net) for the detection and quantification of MI in MRI images. This has the potential to reduce the uncertainty due to the technical variability across labs and inherent problems of the data and labels. Our system consists of four processing stages designed to maintain the flow of information across scales. First, features from raw MRI images are generated using feature extractors built on ResNet and MoblieNet architectures. This is followed by the Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling (ASPP) to produce spatial information at different scales to preserve more image context. High-level features from ASPP and initial low-level features are concatenated at the third stage and then passed to the fourth stage where spatial information is recovered via up-sampling to produce final image segmentation output into: i) background, ii) heart muscle, iii) blood and iv) scar areas. New models were compared with state-of-art models and manual quantification. Our models showed favorable performance in global segmentation and scar tissue detection relative to state-of-the-art work, including a four-fold better performance in matching scar pixels to contours produced by clinicians.
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Three main points: 1. Data Science (DS) will be increasingly important to heliophysics; 2. Methods of heliophysics science discovery will continually evolve, requiring the use of learning technologies [e.g., machine learning (ML)] that are applied rigorously and that are capable of supporting discovery; and 3. To grow with the pace of data, technology, and workforce changes, heliophysics requires a new approach to the representation of knowledge.
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In recent years, reinforcement learning (RL) has become increasingly successful in its application to science and the process of scientific discovery in general. However, while RL algorithms learn to solve increasingly complex problems, interpreting the solutions they provide becomes ever more challenging. In this work, we gain insights into an RL agent's learned behavior through a post-hoc analysis based on sequence mining and clustering. Specifically, frequent and compact subroutines, used by the agent to solve a given task, are distilled as gadgets and then grouped by various metrics. This process of gadget discovery develops in three stages: First, we use an RL agent to generate data, then, we employ a mining algorithm to extract gadgets and finally, the obtained gadgets are grouped by a density-based clustering algorithm. We demonstrate our method by applying it to two quantum-inspired RL environments. First, we consider simulated quantum optics experiments for the design of high-dimensional multipartite entangled states where the algorithm finds gadgets that correspond to modern interferometer setups. Second, we consider a circuit-based quantum computing environment where the algorithm discovers various gadgets for quantum information processing, such as quantum teleportation. This approach for analyzing the policy of a learned agent is agent and environment agnostic and can yield interesting insights into any agent's policy.
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The availability of frequent and cost-free satellite images is in growing demand in the research world. Such satellite constellations as Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 provide a massive amount of valuable data daily. However, the discrepancy in the sensors' characteristics of these satellites makes it senseless to use a segmentation model trained on either dataset and applied to another, which is why domain adaptation techniques have recently become an active research area in remote sensing. In this paper, an experiment of domain adaptation through style-transferring is conducted using the HRSemI2I model to narrow the sensor discrepancy between Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2. This paper's main contribution is analyzing the expediency of that approach by comparing the results of segmentation using domain-adapted images with those without adaptation. The HRSemI2I model, adjusted to work with 6-band imagery, shows significant intersection-over-union performance improvement for both mean and per class metrics. A second contribution is providing different schemes of generalization between two label schemes - NALCMS 2015 and CORINE. The first scheme is standardization through higher-level land cover classes, and the second is through harmonization validation in the field.
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Wearable sensors for measuring head kinematics can be noisy due to imperfect interfaces with the body. Mouthguards are used to measure head kinematics during impacts in traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies, but deviations from reference kinematics can still occur due to potential looseness. In this study, deep learning is used to compensate for the imperfect interface and improve measurement accuracy. A set of one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) models was developed to denoise mouthguard kinematics measurements along three spatial axes of linear acceleration and angular velocity. The denoised kinematics had significantly reduced errors compared to reference kinematics, and reduced errors in brain injury criteria and tissue strain and strain rate calculated via finite element modeling. The 1D-CNN models were also tested on an on-field dataset of college football impacts and a post-mortem human subject dataset, with similar denoising effects observed. The models can be used to improve detection of head impacts and TBI risk evaluation, and potentially extended to other sensors measuring kinematics.
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The number of international benchmarking competitions is steadily increasing in various fields of machine learning (ML) research and practice. So far, however, little is known about the common practice as well as bottlenecks faced by the community in tackling the research questions posed. To shed light on the status quo of algorithm development in the specific field of biomedical imaging analysis, we designed an international survey that was issued to all participants of challenges conducted in conjunction with the IEEE ISBI 2021 and MICCAI 2021 conferences (80 competitions in total). The survey covered participants' expertise and working environments, their chosen strategies, as well as algorithm characteristics. A median of 72% challenge participants took part in the survey. According to our results, knowledge exchange was the primary incentive (70%) for participation, while the reception of prize money played only a minor role (16%). While a median of 80 working hours was spent on method development, a large portion of participants stated that they did not have enough time for method development (32%). 25% perceived the infrastructure to be a bottleneck. Overall, 94% of all solutions were deep learning-based. Of these, 84% were based on standard architectures. 43% of the respondents reported that the data samples (e.g., images) were too large to be processed at once. This was most commonly addressed by patch-based training (69%), downsampling (37%), and solving 3D analysis tasks as a series of 2D tasks. K-fold cross-validation on the training set was performed by only 37% of the participants and only 50% of the participants performed ensembling based on multiple identical models (61%) or heterogeneous models (39%). 48% of the respondents applied postprocessing steps.
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The vulnerabilities of fingerprint-based recognition systems to direct attacks with and without the cooperation of the user are studied. Two different systems, one minutiae-based and one ridge feature-based, are evaluated on a database of real and fake fingerprints. Based on the fingerprint images quality and on the results achieved on different operational scenarios, we obtain a number of statistically significant observations regarding the robustness of the systems.
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Science tests competing theories or models by evaluating the similarity of their predictions against observational experience. Thus, how we measure similarity fundamentally determines what we learn. In machine learning and scientific modeling, similarity metrics are used as objective functions. A classic example being mean squared error, which is the optimal measure of similarity when errors are normally distributed and independent and identically distributed (iid). In many cases, however, the error distribution is neither normal nor iid, so it is left to the scientist to determine an appropriate objective. Here, we review how information theory can guide that selection, then demonstrate the approach with a simple hydrologic model.
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