This paper as technology report is focusing on evaluation and performance about depth estimations based on lidar data and stereo images(front left and front right). The lidar 3d cloud data and stereo images are provided by ford. In addition, this paper also will explain some details about optimization for depth estimation performance. And some reasons why not use machine learning to do depth estimation, replaced by pure mathmatics to do stereo depth estimation. The structure of this paper is made of by following:(1) Performance: to discuss and evaluate about depth maps created from stereo images and 3D cloud points, and relationships analysis for alignment and errors;(2) Depth estimation by stereo images: to explain the methods about how to use stereo images to estimate depth;(3)Depth estimation by lidar: to explain the methods about how to use 3d cloud datas to estimate depth;In summary, this report is mainly to show the performance of depth maps and their approaches, analysis for them.
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Lane detection is a long-standing task and a basic module in autonomous driving. The task is to detect the lane of the current driving road, and provide relevant information such as the ID, direction, curvature, width, length, with visualization. Our work is based on CNN backbone DLA-34, along with Affinity Fields, aims to achieve robust detection of various lanes without assuming the number of lanes. Besides, we investigate novel decoding methods to achieve more efficient lane detection algorithm.
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Group sparse representation has shown promising results in image debulrring and image inpainting in GSR [3] , the main reason that lead to the success is by exploiting Sparsity and Nonlocal self-similarity (NSS) between patches on natural images, and solve a regularized optimization problem. However, directly adapting GSR[3] in image denoising yield very unstable and non-satisfactory results, to overcome these issues, this paper proposes a progressive image denoising algorithm that successfully adapt GSR [3] model and experiments shows the superior performance than some of the state-of-the-art methods.
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Level 5 Autonomous Driving, a technology that a fully automated vehicle (AV) requires no human intervention, has raised serious concerns on safety and stability before widespread use. The capability of understanding and predicting future motion trajectory of road objects can help AV plan a path that is safe and easy to control. In this paper, we propose a network architecture that parallelizes multiple convolutional neural network backbones and fuses features to make multi-mode trajectory prediction. In the 2020 ICRA Nuscene Prediction challenge, our model ranks 15th on the leaderboard across all teams.
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Deep learning models can achieve high accuracy when trained on large amounts of labeled data. However, real-world scenarios often involve several challenges: Training data may become available in installments, may originate from multiple different domains, and may not contain labels for training. Certain settings, for instance medical applications, often involve further restrictions that prohibit retention of previously seen data due to privacy regulations. In this work, to address such challenges, we study unsupervised segmentation in continual learning scenarios that involve domain shift. To that end, we introduce GarDA (Generative Appearance Replay for continual Domain Adaptation), a generative-replay based approach that can adapt a segmentation model sequentially to new domains with unlabeled data. In contrast to single-step unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA), continual adaptation to a sequence of domains enables leveraging and consolidation of information from multiple domains. Unlike previous approaches in incremental UDA, our method does not require access to previously seen data, making it applicable in many practical scenarios. We evaluate GarDA on two datasets with different organs and modalities, where it substantially outperforms existing techniques.
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The development of social media user stance detection and bot detection methods rely heavily on large-scale and high-quality benchmarks. However, in addition to low annotation quality, existing benchmarks generally have incomplete user relationships, suppressing graph-based account detection research. To address these issues, we propose a Multi-Relational Graph-Based Twitter Account Detection Benchmark (MGTAB), the first standardized graph-based benchmark for account detection. To our knowledge, MGTAB was built based on the largest original data in the field, with over 1.55 million users and 130 million tweets. MGTAB contains 10,199 expert-annotated users and 7 types of relationships, ensuring high-quality annotation and diversified relations. In MGTAB, we extracted the 20 user property features with the greatest information gain and user tweet features as the user features. In addition, we performed a thorough evaluation of MGTAB and other public datasets. Our experiments found that graph-based approaches are generally more effective than feature-based approaches and perform better when introducing multiple relations. By analyzing experiment results, we identify effective approaches for account detection and provide potential future research directions in this field. Our benchmark and standardized evaluation procedures are freely available at: https://github.com/GraphDetec/MGTAB.
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As one of the prevalent methods to achieve automation systems, Imitation Learning (IL) presents a promising performance in a wide range of domains. However, despite the considerable improvement in policy performance, the corresponding research on the explainability of IL models is still limited. Inspired by the recent approaches in explainable artificial intelligence methods, we proposed a model-agnostic explaining framework for IL models called R2RISE. R2RISE aims to explain the overall policy performance with respect to the frames in demonstrations. It iteratively retrains the black-box IL model from the randomized masked demonstrations and uses the conventional evaluation outcome environment returns as the coefficient to build an importance map. We also conducted experiments to investigate three major questions concerning frames' importance equality, the effectiveness of the importance map, and connections between importance maps from different IL models. The result shows that R2RISE successfully distinguishes important frames from the demonstrations.
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Compressed videos often exhibit visually annoying artifacts, known as Perceivable Encoding Artifacts (PEAs), which dramatically degrade video visual quality. Subjective and objective measures capable of identifying and quantifying various types of PEAs are critical in improving visual quality. In this paper, we investigate the influence of four spatial PEAs (i.e. blurring, blocking, bleeding, and ringing) and two temporal PEAs (i.e. flickering and floating) on video quality. For spatial artifacts, we propose a visual saliency model with a low computational cost and higher consistency with human visual perception. In terms of temporal artifacts, self-attention based TimeSFormer is improved to detect temporal artifacts. Based on the six types of PEAs, a quality metric called Saliency-Aware Spatio-Temporal Artifacts Measurement (SSTAM) is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art metrics. We believe that SSTAM will be beneficial for optimizing video coding techniques.
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We propose a distributionally robust return-risk model for Markov decision processes (MDPs) under risk and reward ambiguity. The proposed model optimizes the weighted average of mean and percentile performances, and it covers the distributionally robust MDPs and the distributionally robust chance-constrained MDPs (both under reward ambiguity) as special cases. By considering that the unknown reward distribution lies in a Wasserstein ambiguity set, we derive the tractable reformulation for our model. In particular, we show that that the return-risk model can also account for risk from uncertain transition kernel when one only seeks deterministic policies, and that a distributionally robust MDP under the percentile criterion can be reformulated as its nominal counterpart at an adjusted risk level. A scalable first-order algorithm is designed to solve large-scale problems, and we demonstrate the advantages of our proposed model and algorithm through numerical experiments.
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Witnessing the impressive achievements of pre-training techniques on large-scale data in the field of computer vision and natural language processing, we wonder whether this idea could be adapted in a grab-and-go spirit, and mitigate the sample inefficiency problem for visuomotor driving. Given the highly dynamic and variant nature of the input, the visuomotor driving task inherently lacks view and translation invariance, and the visual input contains massive irrelevant information for decision making, resulting in predominant pre-training approaches from general vision less suitable for the autonomous driving task. To this end, we propose PPGeo (Policy Pre-training via Geometric modeling), an intuitive and straightforward fully self-supervised framework curated for the policy pretraining in visuomotor driving. We aim at learning policy representations as a powerful abstraction by modeling 3D geometric scenes on large-scale unlabeled and uncalibrated YouTube driving videos. The proposed PPGeo is performed in two stages to support effective self-supervised training. In the first stage, the geometric modeling framework generates pose and depth predictions simultaneously, with two consecutive frames as input. In the second stage, the visual encoder learns driving policy representation by predicting the future ego-motion and optimizing with the photometric error based on current visual observation only. As such, the pre-trained visual encoder is equipped with rich driving policy related representations and thereby competent for multiple visuomotor driving tasks. Extensive experiments covering a wide span of challenging scenarios have demonstrated the superiority of our proposed approach, where improvements range from 2% to even over 100% with very limited data. Code and models will be available at https://github.com/OpenDriveLab/PPGeo.
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