Integration of multiple sensor modalities and deep learning into Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) systems are areas of significant interest in current research. Multi-modality is a stepping stone towards achieving robustness in challenging environments and interoperability of heterogeneous multi-robot systems with varying sensor setups. With maplab 2.0, we provide a versatile open-source platform that facilitates developing, testing, and integrating new modules and features into a fully-fledged SLAM system. Through extensive experiments, we show that maplab 2.0's accuracy is comparable to the state-of-the-art on the HILTI 2021 benchmark. Additionally, we showcase the flexibility of our system with three use cases: i) large-scale (approx. 10 km) multi-robot multi-session (23 missions) mapping, ii) integration of non-visual landmarks, and iii) incorporating a semantic object-based loop closure module into the mapping framework. The code is available open-source at https://github.com/ethz-asl/maplab.
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本文通过讨论参加了为期三年的SubT竞赛的六支球队的不同大满贯策略和成果,报道了地下大满贯的现状。特别是,本文有四个主要目标。首先,我们审查团队采用的算法,架构和系统;特别重点是以激光雷达以激光雷达为中心的SLAM解决方案(几乎所有竞争中所有团队的首选方法),异质的多机器人操作(包括空中机器人和地面机器人)和现实世界的地下操作(从存在需要处理严格的计算约束的晦涩之处)。我们不会回避讨论不同SubT SLAM系统背后的肮脏细节,这些系统通常会从技术论文中省略。其次,我们通过强调当前的SLAM系统的可能性以及我们认为与一些良好的系统工程有关的范围来讨论该领域的成熟度。第三,我们概述了我们认为是基本的开放问题,这些问题可能需要进一步的研究才能突破。最后,我们提供了在SubT挑战和相关工作期间生产的开源SLAM实现和数据集的列表,并构成了研究人员和从业人员的有用资源。
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本文介绍了Cerberus机器人系统系统,该系统赢得了DARPA Subterranean挑战最终活动。出席机器人自主权。由于其几何复杂性,降解的感知条件以及缺乏GPS支持,严峻的导航条件和拒绝通信,地下设置使自动操作变得特别要求。为了应对这一挑战,我们开发了Cerberus系统,该系统利用了腿部和飞行机器人的协同作用,再加上可靠的控制,尤其是为了克服危险的地形,多模式和多机器人感知,以在传感器退化,以及在传感器退化的条件下进行映射以及映射通过统一的探索路径计划和本地运动计划,反映机器人特定限制的弹性自主权。 Cerberus基于其探索各种地下环境及其高级指挥和控制的能力,表现出有效的探索,对感兴趣的对象的可靠检测以及准确的映射。在本文中,我们报告了DARPA地下挑战赛的初步奔跑和最终奖项的结果,并讨论了为社区带来利益的教训所面临的亮点和挑战。
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In unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA), a model trained on source data (e.g. synthetic) is adapted to target data (e.g. real-world) without access to target annotation. Most previous UDA methods struggle with classes that have a similar visual appearance on the target domain as no ground truth is available to learn the slight appearance differences. To address this problem, we propose a Masked Image Consistency (MIC) module to enhance UDA by learning spatial context relations of the target domain as additional clues for robust visual recognition. MIC enforces the consistency between predictions of masked target images, where random patches are withheld, and pseudo-labels that are generated based on the complete image by an exponential moving average teacher. To minimize the consistency loss, the network has to learn to infer the predictions of the masked regions from their context. Due to its simple and universal concept, MIC can be integrated into various UDA methods across different visual recognition tasks such as image classification, semantic segmentation, and object detection. MIC significantly improves the state-of-the-art performance across the different recognition tasks for synthetic-to-real, day-to-nighttime, and clear-to-adverse-weather UDA. For instance, MIC achieves an unprecedented UDA performance of 75.9 mIoU and 92.8% on GTA-to-Cityscapes and VisDA-2017, respectively, which corresponds to an improvement of +2.1 and +3.0 percent points over the previous state of the art. The implementation is available at https://github.com/lhoyer/MIC.
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Subword-level models have been the dominant paradigm in NLP. However, character-level models have the benefit of seeing each character individually, providing the model with more detailed information that ultimately could lead to better models. Recent works have shown character-level models to be competitive with subword models, but costly in terms of time and computation. Character-level models with a downsampling component alleviate this, but at the cost of quality, particularly for machine translation. This work analyzes the problems of previous downsampling methods and introduces a novel downsampling method which is informed by subwords. This new downsampling method not only outperforms existing downsampling methods, showing that downsampling characters can be done without sacrificing quality, but also leads to promising performance compared to subword models for translation.
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We present HashEncoding, a novel autoencoding architecture that leverages a non-parametric multiscale coordinate hash function to facilitate a per-pixel decoder without convolutions. By leveraging the space-folding behaviour of hashing functions, HashEncoding allows for an inherently multiscale embedding space that remains much smaller than the original image. As a result, the decoder requires very few parameters compared with decoders in traditional autoencoders, approaching a non-parametric reconstruction of the original image and allowing for greater generalizability. Finally, by allowing backpropagation directly to the coordinate space, we show that HashEncoding can be exploited for geometric tasks such as optical flow.
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Linear-quadratic regulators (LQR) are a well known and widely used tool in control theory for both linear and nonlinear dynamics. For nonlinear problems, an LQR-based controller is usually only locally viable, thus, raising the problem of estimating the region of attraction (ROA). The need for good ROA estimations becomes especially pressing for underactuated systems, as a failure of controls might lead to unsafe and unrecoverable system states. Known approaches based on optimization or sampling, while working well, might be too slow in time critical applications and are hard to verify formally. In this work, we propose a novel approach to estimate the ROA based on the analytic solutions to linear ODEs for the torque limited simple pendulum. In simulation and physical experiments, we compared our approach to a Lyapunov-sampling baseline approach and found that our approach was faster to compute, while yielding ROA estimations of similar phase space area.
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Reliable application of machine learning-based decision systems in the wild is one of the major challenges currently investigated by the field. A large portion of established approaches aims to detect erroneous predictions by means of assigning confidence scores. This confidence may be obtained by either quantifying the model's predictive uncertainty, learning explicit scoring functions, or assessing whether the input is in line with the training distribution. Curiously, while these approaches all state to address the same eventual goal of detecting failures of a classifier upon real-life application, they currently constitute largely separated research fields with individual evaluation protocols, which either exclude a substantial part of relevant methods or ignore large parts of relevant failure sources. In this work, we systematically reveal current pitfalls caused by these inconsistencies and derive requirements for a holistic and realistic evaluation of failure detection. To demonstrate the relevance of this unified perspective, we present a large-scale empirical study for the first time enabling benchmarking confidence scoring functions w.r.t all relevant methods and failure sources. The revelation of a simple softmax response baseline as the overall best performing method underlines the drastic shortcomings of current evaluation in the abundance of publicized research on confidence scoring. Code and trained models are at https://github.com/IML-DKFZ/fd-shifts.
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The 1$^{\text{st}}$ Workshop on Maritime Computer Vision (MaCVi) 2023 focused on maritime computer vision for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV), and organized several subchallenges in this domain: (i) UAV-based Maritime Object Detection, (ii) UAV-based Maritime Object Tracking, (iii) USV-based Maritime Obstacle Segmentation and (iv) USV-based Maritime Obstacle Detection. The subchallenges were based on the SeaDronesSee and MODS benchmarks. This report summarizes the main findings of the individual subchallenges and introduces a new benchmark, called SeaDronesSee Object Detection v2, which extends the previous benchmark by including more classes and footage. We provide statistical and qualitative analyses, and assess trends in the best-performing methodologies of over 130 submissions. The methods are summarized in the appendix. The datasets, evaluation code and the leaderboard are publicly available at https://seadronessee.cs.uni-tuebingen.de/macvi.
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Mathematical models of cognition are often memoryless and ignore potential fluctuations of their parameters. However, human cognition is inherently dynamic, regardless of the reference time scale. Thus, we propose to augment mechanistic cognitive models with a temporal dimension and estimate the resulting dynamics from a superstatistics perspective. In its simplest form, such a model entails a hierarchy between a low-level observation model and a high-level transition model. The observation model describes the local behavior of a system, and the transition model specifies how the parameters of the observation model evolve over time. To overcome the estimation challenges resulting from the complexity of superstatistical models, we develop and validate a simulation-based deep learning method for Bayesian inference, which can recover both time-varying and time-invariant parameters. We first benchmark our method against two existing frameworks capable of estimating time-varying parameters. We then apply our method to fit a dynamic version of the diffusion decision model to long time series of human response times data. Our results show that the deep learning approach is very efficient in capturing the temporal dynamics of the model. Furthermore, we show that the erroneous assumption of static or homogeneous parameters will hide important temporal information.
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