Artificial Intelligence (AI) is having a tremendous impact across most areas of science. Applications of AI in healthcare have the potential to improve our ability to detect, diagnose, prognose, and intervene on human disease. For AI models to be used clinically, they need to be made safe, reproducible and robust, and the underlying software framework must be aware of the particularities (e.g. geometry, physiology, physics) of medical data being processed. This work introduces MONAI, a freely available, community-supported, and consortium-led PyTorch-based framework for deep learning in healthcare. MONAI extends PyTorch to support medical data, with a particular focus on imaging, and provide purpose-specific AI model architectures, transformations and utilities that streamline the development and deployment of medical AI models. MONAI follows best practices for software-development, providing an easy-to-use, robust, well-documented, and well-tested software framework. MONAI preserves the simple, additive, and compositional approach of its underlying PyTorch libraries. MONAI is being used by and receiving contributions from research, clinical and industrial teams from around the world, who are pursuing applications spanning nearly every aspect of healthcare.
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神经网络(深度学习)是人工智能中的现代模型,并且在生存分析中已被利用。尽管以前的作品已经显示出一些改进,但培训出色的深度学习模型需要大量数据,这在实践中可能不存在。为了应对这一挑战,我们开发了一个基于Kullback-Leibler(KL)深度学习程序,以将外部生存预测模型与新收集的活动时间数据整合在一起。时间依赖性的KL歧视信息用于衡量外部数据和内部数据之间的差异。这是考虑使用先前信息来处理深度学习生存分析中的简短数据问题的第一项工作。仿真和实际数据结果表明,与以前的工作相比,所提出的模型可实现更好的性能和更高的鲁棒性。
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语言模型既展示了定量的改进,又展示了新的定性功能,随着规模的增加。尽管它们具有潜在的变革性影响,但这些新能力的特征却很差。为了为未来的研究提供信息,为破坏性的新模型能力做准备,并改善社会有害的效果,至关重要的是,我们必须了解目前和近乎未来的能力和语言模型的局限性。为了应对这一挑战,我们介绍了超越模仿游戏基准(Big Bench)。 Big Bench目前由204个任务组成,由132家机构的442位作者贡献。任务主题是多样的,从语言学,儿童发展,数学,常识性推理,生物学,物理学,社会偏见,软件开发等等。 Big-Bench专注于被认为超出当前语言模型的功能的任务。我们评估了OpenAI的GPT型号,Google内部密集变压器体系结构和大型基础上的开关稀疏变压器的行为,跨越了数百万到数十亿个参数。此外,一个人类专家评估者团队执行了所有任务,以提供强大的基准。研究结果包括:模型性能和校准都随规模改善,但绝对的术语(以及与评估者的性能相比);在模型类中的性能非常相似,尽管带有稀疏性。逐渐和预测的任务通常涉及大量知识或记忆成分,而在临界规模上表现出“突破性”行为的任务通常涉及多个步骤或组成部分或脆性指标;社交偏见通常会随着含糊不清的环境而随着规模而增加,但这可以通过提示来改善。
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基于深度神经网络的医学图像系统容易受到对抗的例子。在文献中提出了许多防御机制,然而,现有的防御者假设被动攻击者对防御系统知之甚少,并没有根据防御改变攻击战略。最近的作品表明,一个强大的自适应攻击,攻击者被认为具有完全了解防御系统的知识,可以轻松绕过现有的防御。在本文中,我们提出了一种名为Medical Aegis的新型对抗性示例防御系统。据我们所知,医疗AEGIS是文献中的第一次防范,成功地解决了对医学图像的强烈适应性的对抗性示例攻击。医疗AEGIS拥有两层保护剂:第一层垫通过去除其高频分量而削弱了攻击的对抗性操纵能力,但对原始图像的分类性能构成了最小的影响;第二层盾牌学习一组每级DNN模型来预测受保护模型的登录。偏离屏蔽的预测表明对抗性示例。盾牌受到在我们的压力测试中的观察中的观察,即在DNN模型的浅层中存在坚固的小径,自适应攻击难以破坏。实验结果表明,建议的防御精确地检测了自适应攻击,模型推理的开销具有可忽略的开销。
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Emerging technologies and applications including Internet of Things (IoT), social networking, and crowd-sourcing generate large amounts of data at the network edge. Machine learning models are often built from the collected data, to enable the detection, classification, and prediction of future events. Due to bandwidth, storage, and privacy concerns, it is often impractical to send all the data to a centralized location. In this paper, we consider the problem of learning model parameters from data distributed across multiple edge nodes, without sending raw data to a centralized place. Our focus is on a generic class of machine learning models that are trained using gradientdescent based approaches. We analyze the convergence bound of distributed gradient descent from a theoretical point of view, based on which we propose a control algorithm that determines the best trade-off between local update and global parameter aggregation to minimize the loss function under a given resource budget. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated via extensive experiments with real datasets, both on a networked prototype system and in a larger-scale simulated environment. The experimentation results show that our proposed approach performs near to the optimum with various machine learning models and different data distributions.
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Geometric camera calibration is often required for applications that understand the perspective of the image. We propose perspective fields as a representation that models the local perspective properties of an image. Perspective Fields contain per-pixel information about the camera view, parameterized as an up vector and a latitude value. This representation has a number of advantages as it makes minimal assumptions about the camera model and is invariant or equivariant to common image editing operations like cropping, warping, and rotation. It is also more interpretable and aligned with human perception. We train a neural network to predict Perspective Fields and the predicted Perspective Fields can be converted to calibration parameters easily. We demonstrate the robustness of our approach under various scenarios compared with camera calibration-based methods and show example applications in image compositing.
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Generating new fonts is a time-consuming and labor-intensive, especially in a language with a huge amount of characters like Chinese. Various deep learning models have demonstrated the ability to efficiently generate new fonts with a few reference characters of that style. This project aims to develop a few-shot cross-lingual font generator based on AGIS-Net and improve the performance metrics mentioned. Our approaches include redesigning the encoder and the loss function. We will validate our method on multiple languages and datasets mentioned.
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In recent years, object detection has achieved a very large performance improvement, but the detection result of small objects is still not very satisfactory. This work proposes a strategy based on feature fusion and dilated convolution that employs dilated convolution to broaden the receptive field of feature maps at various scales in order to address this issue. On the one hand, it can improve the detection accuracy of larger objects. On the other hand, it provides more contextual information for small objects, which is beneficial to improving the detection accuracy of small objects. The shallow semantic information of small objects is obtained by filtering out the noise in the feature map, and the feature information of more small objects is preserved by using multi-scale fusion feature module and attention mechanism. The fusion of these shallow feature information and deep semantic information can generate richer feature maps for small object detection. Experiments show that this method can have higher accuracy than the traditional YOLOv3 network in the detection of small objects and occluded objects. In addition, we achieve 32.8\% Mean Average Precision on the detection of small objects on MS COCO2017 test set. For 640*640 input, this method has 88.76\% mAP on the PASCAL VOC2012 dataset.
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Existing 3D scene stylization methods employ an arbitrary style reference to transfer textures and colors as styles without establishing meaningful semantic correspondences. We present Reference-Based Non-Photorealistic Radiance Fields, i.e., Ref-NPR. It is a controllable scene stylization method utilizing radiance fields to stylize a 3D scene, with a single stylized 2D view taken as reference. To achieve decent results, we propose a ray registration process based on the stylized reference view to obtain pseudo-ray supervision in novel views, and exploit the semantic correspondence in content images to fill occluded regions with perceptually similar styles. Combining these operations, Ref-NPR generates non-photorealistic and continuous novel view sequences with a single reference while obtaining reasonable stylization in occluded regions. Experiments show that Ref-NPR significantly outperforms other scene and video stylization methods in terms of both visual quality and semantic correspondence. Code and data will be made publicly available.
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Computer vision and machine learning are playing an increasingly important role in computer-assisted diagnosis; however, the application of deep learning to medical imaging has challenges in data availability and data imbalance, and it is especially important that models for medical imaging are built to be trustworthy. Therefore, we propose TRUDLMIA, a trustworthy deep learning framework for medical image analysis, which adopts a modular design, leverages self-supervised pre-training, and utilizes a novel surrogate loss function. Experimental evaluations indicate that models generated from the framework are both trustworthy and high-performing. It is anticipated that the framework will support researchers and clinicians in advancing the use of deep learning for dealing with public health crises including COVID-19.
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