As large language models (LLMs) grow larger and more sophisticated, assessing their "reasoning" capabilities in natural language grows more challenging. Recent question answering (QA) benchmarks that attempt to assess reasoning are often limited by a narrow scope of covered situations and subject matters. We introduce WikiWhy, a QA dataset built around a novel auxiliary task: explaining why an answer is true in natural language. WikiWhy contains over 9,000 "why" question-answer-rationale triples, grounded on Wikipedia facts across a diverse set of topics. Each rationale is a set of supporting statements connecting the question to the answer. WikiWhy serves as a benchmark for the reasoning capabilities of LLMs because it demands rigorous explicit rationales for each answer to demonstrate the acquisition of implicit commonsense knowledge, which is unlikely to be easily memorized. GPT-3 baselines achieve only 38.7% human-evaluated correctness in the end-to-end answer & explain condition, leaving significant room for future improvements.
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深度学习(DL)模型为各种医学成像基准挑战提供了最先进的性能,包括脑肿瘤细分(BRATS)挑战。然而,局灶性病理多隔室分割(例如,肿瘤和病变子区)的任务特别具有挑战性,并且潜在的错误阻碍DL模型转化为临床工作流程。量化不确定形式的DL模型预测的可靠性,可以实现最不确定的地区的临床审查,从而建立信任并铺平临床翻译。最近,已经引入了许多不确定性估计方法,用于DL医学图像分割任务。开发指标评估和比较不确定性措施的表现将有助于最终用户制定更明智的决策。在本研究中,我们探索并评估在Brats 2019-2020任务期间开发的公制,以对不确定量化量化(Qu-Brats),并旨在评估和排列脑肿瘤多隔室分割的不确定性估计。该公制(1)奖励不确定性估计,对正确断言产生高置信度,以及在不正确的断言处分配低置信水平的估计数,(2)惩罚导致更高百分比的无关正确断言百分比的不确定性措施。我们进一步基准测试由14个独立参与的Qu-Brats 2020的分割不确定性,所有这些都参与了主要的Brats细分任务。总体而言,我们的研究结果证实了不确定性估计提供了分割算法的重要性和互补价值,因此突出了医学图像分析中不确定性量化的需求。我们的评估代码在HTTPS://github.com/ragmeh11/qu-brats公开提供。
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The recent increase in public and academic interest in preserving biodiversity has led to the growth of the field of conservation technology. This field involves designing and constructing tools that utilize technology to aid in the conservation of wildlife. In this article, we will use case studies to demonstrate the importance of designing conservation tools with human-wildlife interaction in mind and provide a framework for creating successful tools. These case studies include a range of complexities, from simple cat collars to machine learning and game theory methodologies. Our goal is to introduce and inform current and future researchers in the field of conservation technology and provide references for educating the next generation of conservation technologists. Conservation technology not only has the potential to benefit biodiversity but also has broader impacts on fields such as sustainability and environmental protection. By using innovative technologies to address conservation challenges, we can find more effective and efficient solutions to protect and preserve our planet's resources.
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We present Muse, a text-to-image Transformer model that achieves state-of-the-art image generation performance while being significantly more efficient than diffusion or autoregressive models. Muse is trained on a masked modeling task in discrete token space: given the text embedding extracted from a pre-trained large language model (LLM), Muse is trained to predict randomly masked image tokens. Compared to pixel-space diffusion models, such as Imagen and DALL-E 2, Muse is significantly more efficient due to the use of discrete tokens and requiring fewer sampling iterations; compared to autoregressive models, such as Parti, Muse is more efficient due to the use of parallel decoding. The use of a pre-trained LLM enables fine-grained language understanding, translating to high-fidelity image generation and the understanding of visual concepts such as objects, their spatial relationships, pose, cardinality etc. Our 900M parameter model achieves a new SOTA on CC3M, with an FID score of 6.06. The Muse 3B parameter model achieves an FID of 7.88 on zero-shot COCO evaluation, along with a CLIP score of 0.32. Muse also directly enables a number of image editing applications without the need to fine-tune or invert the model: inpainting, outpainting, and mask-free editing. More results are available at https://muse-model.github.io
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An unbiased scene graph generation (SGG) algorithm referred to as Skew Class-balanced Re-weighting (SCR) is proposed for considering the unbiased predicate prediction caused by the long-tailed distribution. The prior works focus mainly on alleviating the deteriorating performances of the minority predicate predictions, showing drastic dropping recall scores, i.e., losing the majority predicate performances. It has not yet correctly analyzed the trade-off between majority and minority predicate performances in the limited SGG datasets. In this paper, to alleviate the issue, the Skew Class-balanced Re-weighting (SCR) loss function is considered for the unbiased SGG models. Leveraged by the skewness of biased predicate predictions, the SCR estimates the target predicate weight coefficient and then re-weights more to the biased predicates for better trading-off between the majority predicates and the minority ones. Extensive experiments conducted on the standard Visual Genome dataset and Open Image V4 \& V6 show the performances and generality of the SCR with the traditional SGG models.
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With the increasing ability of large language models (LLMs), in-context learning (ICL) has become a new paradigm for natural language processing (NLP), where LLMs make predictions only based on contexts augmented with a few training examples. It has been a new trend exploring ICL to evaluate and extrapolate the ability of LLMs. In this paper, we aim to survey and summarize the progress, challenges, and future work in ICL. We first present a formal definition of ICL and clarify its correlation to related studies. Then, we organize and discuss advanced techniques of ICL, including training strategies, prompting strategies, and so on. Finally, we present the challenges of ICL and provide potential directions for further research. We hope our work can encourage more research on uncovering how ICL works and improving ICL in future work.
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Masked image modeling (MIM) has shown great promise for self-supervised learning (SSL) yet been criticized for learning inefficiency. We believe the insufficient utilization of training signals should be responsible. To alleviate this issue, we introduce a conceptually simple yet learning-efficient MIM training scheme, termed Disjoint Masking with Joint Distillation (DMJD). For disjoint masking (DM), we sequentially sample multiple masked views per image in a mini-batch with the disjoint regulation to raise the usage of tokens for reconstruction in each image while keeping the masking rate of each view. For joint distillation (JD), we adopt a dual branch architecture to respectively predict invisible (masked) and visible (unmasked) tokens with superior learning targets. Rooting in orthogonal perspectives for training efficiency improvement, DM and JD cooperatively accelerate the training convergence yet not sacrificing the model generalization ability. Concretely, DM can train ViT with half of the effective training epochs (3.7 times less time-consuming) to report competitive performance. With JD, our DMJD clearly improves the linear probing classification accuracy over ConvMAE by 5.8%. On fine-grained downstream tasks like semantic segmentation, object detection, etc., our DMJD also presents superior generalization compared with state-of-the-art SSL methods. The code and model will be made public at https://github.com/mx-mark/DMJD.
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Deep neural networks are vulnerable to adversarial attacks. In this paper, we take the role of investigators who want to trace the attack and identify the source, that is, the particular model which the adversarial examples are generated from. Techniques derived would aid forensic investigation of attack incidents and serve as deterrence to potential attacks. We consider the buyers-seller setting where a machine learning model is to be distributed to various buyers and each buyer receives a slightly different copy with same functionality. A malicious buyer generates adversarial examples from a particular copy $\mathcal{M}_i$ and uses them to attack other copies. From these adversarial examples, the investigator wants to identify the source $\mathcal{M}_i$. To address this problem, we propose a two-stage separate-and-trace framework. The model separation stage generates multiple copies of a model for a same classification task. This process injects unique characteristics into each copy so that adversarial examples generated have distinct and traceable features. We give a parallel structure which embeds a ``tracer'' in each copy, and a noise-sensitive training loss to achieve this goal. The tracing stage takes in adversarial examples and a few candidate models, and identifies the likely source. Based on the unique features induced by the noise-sensitive loss function, we could effectively trace the potential adversarial copy by considering the output logits from each tracer. Empirical results show that it is possible to trace the origin of the adversarial example and the mechanism can be applied to a wide range of architectures and datasets.
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Participants in political discourse employ rhetorical strategies -- such as hedging, attributions, or denials -- to display varying degrees of belief commitments to claims proposed by themselves or others. Traditionally, political scientists have studied these epistemic phenomena through labor-intensive manual content analysis. We propose to help automate such work through epistemic stance prediction, drawn from research in computational semantics, to distinguish at the clausal level what is asserted, denied, or only ambivalently suggested by the author or other mentioned entities (belief holders). We first develop a simple RoBERTa-based model for multi-source stance predictions that outperforms more complex state-of-the-art modeling. Then we demonstrate its novel application to political science by conducting a large-scale analysis of the Mass Market Manifestos corpus of U.S. political opinion books, where we characterize trends in cited belief holders -- respected allies and opposed bogeymen -- across U.S. political ideologies.
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In this paper, we introduce a novel variation of model-agnostic meta-learning, where an extra multiplicative parameter is introduced in the inner-loop adaptation. Our variation creates a shortcut in the parameter space for the inner-loop adaptation and increases model expressivity in a highly controllable manner. We show both theoretically and numerically that our variation alleviates the problem of conflicting gradients and improves training dynamics. We conduct experiments on 3 distinctive problems, including a toy classification problem for threshold comparison, a regression problem for wavelet transform, and a classification problem on MNIST. We also discuss ways to generalize our method to a broader class of problems.
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