A fundamental characteristic common to both human vision and natural language is their compositional nature. Yet, despite the performance gains contributed by large vision and language pretraining, we find that - across 6 architectures trained with 4 algorithms on massive datasets - they exhibit little compositionality. To arrive at this conclusion, we introduce a new compositionality evaluation benchmark CREPE which measures two important aspects of compositionality identified by cognitive science literature: systematicity and productivity. To measure systematicity, CREPE consists of three test datasets. The three test sets are designed to test models trained on three of the popular training datasets: CC-12M, YFCC-15M, and LAION-400M. They contain 385K, 385K, and 373K image-text pairs and 237K, 210K, and 178K hard negative captions. To test productivity, CREPE contains 17K image-text pairs with nine different complexities plus 246K hard negative captions with atomic, swapping, and negation foils. The datasets are generated by repurposing the Visual Genome scene graphs and region descriptions and applying handcrafted templates and GPT-3. For systematicity, we find that model performance decreases consistently when novel compositions dominate the retrieval set, with Recall@1 dropping by up to 8%. For productivity, models' retrieval success decays as complexity increases, frequently nearing random chance at high complexity. These results hold regardless of model and training dataset size.
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Vision models often fail systematically on groups of data that share common semantic characteristics (e.g., rare objects or unusual scenes), but identifying these failure modes is a challenge. We introduce AdaVision, an interactive process for testing vision models which helps users identify and fix coherent failure modes. Given a natural language description of a coherent group, AdaVision retrieves relevant images from LAION-5B with CLIP. The user then labels a small amount of data for model correctness, which is used in successive retrieval rounds to hill-climb towards high-error regions, refining the group definition. Once a group is saturated, AdaVision uses GPT-3 to suggest new group descriptions for the user to explore. We demonstrate the usefulness and generality of AdaVision in user studies, where users find major bugs in state-of-the-art classification, object detection, and image captioning models. These user-discovered groups have failure rates 2-3x higher than those surfaced by automatic error clustering methods. Finally, finetuning on examples found with AdaVision fixes the discovered bugs when evaluated on unseen examples, without degrading in-distribution accuracy, and while also improving performance on out-of-distribution datasets.
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部署在野外的机器学习系统通常在源分布上培训,但部署在不同的目标分布上。未标记的数据可以是用于缓解这些分布班次的强大的利用点,因为它通常比标记数据更具可用。然而,未标记数据的现有分配转换基准不反映现实世界应用中出现的方案的广度。在这项工作中,我们介绍了Wilds 2.0更新,该更新在分发转移的野外基准中扩展了10个数据集中的8个,以包括将在部署中逼真获得的策划未标记数据。为了保持一致性,标记的培训,验证和测试集以及评估度量与原始野外基准中的标记与评估度量完全相同。这些数据集涵盖了广泛的应用程序(从组织学到野生动物保护),任务(分类,回归和检测)和方式(照片,卫星图像,显微镜载玻片,文本,分子图)。我们系统地基准测试最先进的方法,可以利用未标记的数据,包括域不变,自我培训和自我监督方法,并表明他们在野外的成功2.0是有限的。为了方便方法开发和评估,我们提供了一个自动化数据加载的开源包,并包含本文中使用的所有模型架构和方法。代码和排行榜可在https://wilds.stanford.edu获得。
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Distribution shifts-where the training distribution differs from the test distribution-can substantially degrade the accuracy of machine learning (ML) systems deployed in the wild. Despite their ubiquity in the real-world deployments, these distribution shifts are under-represented in the datasets widely used in the ML community today. To address this gap, we present Wilds, a curated benchmark of 10 datasets reflecting a diverse range of distribution shifts that naturally arise in real-world applications, such as shifts across hospitals for tumor identification; across camera traps for wildlife monitoring; and across time and location in satellite imaging and poverty mapping. On each dataset, we show that standard training yields substantially lower out-of-distribution than in-distribution performance. This gap remains even with models trained by existing methods for tackling distribution shifts, underscoring the need for new methods for training models that are more robust to the types of distribution shifts that arise in practice. To facilitate method development, we provide an open-source package that automates dataset loading, contains default model architectures and hyperparameters, and standardizes evaluations. Code and leaderboards are available at https://wilds.stanford.edu.
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In this paper, we study the problem of knowledge-intensive text-to-SQL, in which domain knowledge is necessary to parse expert questions into SQL queries over domain-specific tables. We formalize this scenario by building a new Chinese benchmark KnowSQL consisting of domain-specific questions covering various domains. We then address this problem by presenting formulaic knowledge, rather than by annotating additional data examples. More concretely, we construct a formulaic knowledge bank as a domain knowledge base and propose a framework (ReGrouP) to leverage this formulaic knowledge during parsing. Experiments using ReGrouP demonstrate a significant 28.2% improvement overall on KnowSQL.
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Weakly-supervised object localization aims to indicate the category as well as the scope of an object in an image given only the image-level labels. Most of the existing works are based on Class Activation Mapping (CAM) and endeavor to enlarge the discriminative area inside the activation map to perceive the whole object, yet ignore the co-occurrence confounder of the object and context (e.g., fish and water), which makes the model inspection hard to distinguish object boundaries. Besides, the use of CAM also brings a dilemma problem that the classification and localization always suffer from a performance gap and can not reach their highest accuracy simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a casual knowledge distillation method, dubbed KD-CI-CAM, to address these two under-explored issues in one go. More specifically, we tackle the co-occurrence context confounder problem via causal intervention (CI), which explores the causalities among image features, contexts, and categories to eliminate the biased object-context entanglement in the class activation maps. Based on the de-biased object feature, we additionally propose a multi-teacher causal distillation framework to balance the absorption of classification knowledge and localization knowledge during model training. Extensive experiments on several benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of KD-CI-CAM in learning clear object boundaries from confounding contexts and addressing the dilemma problem between classification and localization performance.
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Dynamic treatment regimes assign personalized treatments to patients sequentially over time based on their baseline information and time-varying covariates. In mobile health applications, these covariates are typically collected at different frequencies over a long time horizon. In this paper, we propose a deep spectral Q-learning algorithm, which integrates principal component analysis (PCA) with deep Q-learning to handle the mixed frequency data. In theory, we prove that the mean return under the estimated optimal policy converges to that under the optimal one and establish its rate of convergence. The usefulness of our proposal is further illustrated via simulations and an application to a diabetes dataset.
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Nowadays, time-stamped web documents related to a general news query floods spread throughout the Internet, and timeline summarization targets concisely summarizing the evolution trajectory of events along the timeline. Unlike traditional document summarization, timeline summarization needs to model the time series information of the input events and summarize important events in chronological order. To tackle this challenge, in this paper, we propose a Unified Timeline Summarizer (UTS) that can generate abstractive and extractive timeline summaries in time order. Concretely, in the encoder part, we propose a graph-based event encoder that relates multiple events according to their content dependency and learns a global representation of each event. In the decoder part, to ensure the chronological order of the abstractive summary, we propose to extract the feature of event-level attention in its generation process with sequential information remained and use it to simulate the evolutionary attention of the ground truth summary. The event-level attention can also be used to assist in extracting summary, where the extracted summary also comes in time sequence. We augment the previous Chinese large-scale timeline summarization dataset and collect a new English timeline dataset. Extensive experiments conducted on these datasets and on the out-of-domain Timeline 17 dataset show that UTS achieves state-of-the-art performance in terms of both automatic and human evaluations.
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Hybrid unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) integrate the efficient forward flight of fixed-wing and vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) capabilities of multicopter UAVs. This paper presents the modeling, control and simulation of a new type of hybrid micro-small UAVs, coined as lifting-wing quadcopters. The airframe orientation of the lifting wing needs to tilt a specific angle often within $ 45$ degrees, neither nearly $ 90$ nor approximately $ 0$ degrees. Compared with some convertiplane and tail-sitter UAVs, the lifting-wing quadcopter has a highly reliable structure, robust wind resistance, low cruise speed and reliable transition flight, making it potential to work fully-autonomous outdoor or some confined airspace indoor. In the modeling part, forces and moments generated by both lifting wing and rotors are considered. Based on the established model, a unified controller for the full flight phase is designed. The controller has the capability of uniformly treating the hovering and forward flight, and enables a continuous transition between two modes, depending on the velocity command. What is more, by taking rotor thrust and aerodynamic force under consideration simultaneously, a control allocation based on optimization is utilized to realize cooperative control for energy saving. Finally, comprehensive Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations are performed to verify the advantages of the designed aircraft and the proposed controller.
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Due to their ability to offer more comprehensive information than data from a single view, multi-view (multi-source, multi-modal, multi-perspective, etc.) data are being used more frequently in remote sensing tasks. However, as the number of views grows, the issue of data quality becomes more apparent, limiting the potential benefits of multi-view data. Although recent deep neural network (DNN) based models can learn the weight of data adaptively, a lack of research on explicitly quantifying the data quality of each view when fusing them renders these models inexplicable, performing unsatisfactorily and inflexible in downstream remote sensing tasks. To fill this gap, in this paper, evidential deep learning is introduced to the task of aerial-ground dual-view remote sensing scene classification to model the credibility of each view. Specifically, the theory of evidence is used to calculate an uncertainty value which describes the decision-making risk of each view. Based on this uncertainty, a novel decision-level fusion strategy is proposed to ensure that the view with lower risk obtains more weight, making the classification more credible. On two well-known, publicly available datasets of aerial-ground dual-view remote sensing images, the proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art results, demonstrating its effectiveness. The code and datasets of this article are available at the following address: https://github.com/gaopiaoliang/Evidential.
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