Transformers are widely used in NLP tasks. However, current approaches to leveraging transformers to understand language expose one weak spot: Number understanding. In some scenarios, numbers frequently occur, especially in semi-structured data like tables. But current approaches to rich-number tasks with transformer-based language models abandon or lose some of the numeracy information - e.g., breaking numbers into sub-word tokens - which leads to many number-related errors. In this paper, we propose the LUNA framework which improves the numerical reasoning and calculation capabilities of transformer-based language models. With the number plugin of NumTok and NumBed, LUNA represents each number as a whole to model input. With number pre-training, including regression loss and model distillation, LUNA bridges the gap between number and vocabulary embeddings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that explicitly injects numeracy capability into language models using Number Plugins. Besides evaluating toy models on toy tasks, we evaluate LUNA on three large-scale transformer models (RoBERTa, BERT, TabBERT) over three different downstream tasks (TATQA, TabFact, CrediTrans), and observe the performances of language models are constantly improved by LUNA. The augmented models also improve the official baseline of TAT-QA (EM: 50.15 -> 59.58) and achieve SOTA performance on CrediTrans (F1 = 86.17).
translated by 谷歌翻译
Given a few seed entities of a certain type (e.g., Software or Programming Language), entity set expansion aims to discover an extensive set of entities that share the same type as the seeds. Entity set expansion in software-related domains such as StackOverflow can benefit many downstream tasks (e.g., software knowledge graph construction) and facilitate better IT operations and service management. Meanwhile, existing approaches are less concerned with two problems: (1) How to deal with multiple types of seed entities simultaneously? (2) How to leverage the power of pre-trained language models (PLMs)? Being aware of these two problems, in this paper, we study the entity set co-expansion task in StackOverflow, which extracts Library, OS, Application, and Language entities from StackOverflow question-answer threads. During the co-expansion process, we use PLMs to derive embeddings of candidate entities for calculating similarities between entities. Experimental results show that our proposed SECoExpan framework outperforms previous approaches significantly.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Segmenting the fine structure of the mouse brain on magnetic resonance (MR) images is critical for delineating morphological regions, analyzing brain function, and understanding their relationships. Compared to a single MRI modality, multimodal MRI data provide complementary tissue features that can be exploited by deep learning models, resulting in better segmentation results. However, multimodal mouse brain MRI data is often lacking, making automatic segmentation of mouse brain fine structure a very challenging task. To address this issue, it is necessary to fuse multimodal MRI data to produce distinguished contrasts in different brain structures. Hence, we propose a novel disentangled and contrastive GAN-based framework, named MouseGAN++, to synthesize multiple MR modalities from single ones in a structure-preserving manner, thus improving the segmentation performance by imputing missing modalities and multi-modality fusion. Our results demonstrate that the translation performance of our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Using the subsequently learned modality-invariant information as well as the modality-translated images, MouseGAN++ can segment fine brain structures with averaged dice coefficients of 90.0% (T2w) and 87.9% (T1w), respectively, achieving around +10% performance improvement compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms. Our results demonstrate that MouseGAN++, as a simultaneous image synthesis and segmentation method, can be used to fuse cross-modality information in an unpaired manner and yield more robust performance in the absence of multimodal data. We release our method as a mouse brain structural segmentation tool for free academic usage at https://github.com/yu02019.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have been ubiquitously adopted in internet of things and are becoming an integral of our daily life. When tackling the evolving learning tasks in real world, such as classifying different types of objects, DNNs face the challenge to continually retrain themselves according to the tasks on different edge devices. Federated continual learning is a promising technique that offers partial solutions but yet to overcome the following difficulties: the significant accuracy loss due to the limited on-device processing, the negative knowledge transfer caused by the limited communication of non-IID data, and the limited scalability on the tasks and edge devices. In this paper, we propose FedKNOW, an accurate and scalable federated continual learning framework, via a novel concept of signature task knowledge. FedKNOW is a client side solution that continuously extracts and integrates the knowledge of signature tasks which are highly influenced by the current task. Each client of FedKNOW is composed of a knowledge extractor, a gradient restorer and, most importantly, a gradient integrator. Upon training for a new task, the gradient integrator ensures the prevention of catastrophic forgetting and mitigation of negative knowledge transfer by effectively combining signature tasks identified from the past local tasks and other clients' current tasks through the global model. We implement FedKNOW in PyTorch and extensively evaluate it against state-of-the-art techniques using popular federated continual learning benchmarks. Extensive evaluation results on heterogeneous edge devices show that FedKNOW improves model accuracy by 63.24% without increasing model training time, reduces communication cost by 34.28%, and achieves more improvements under difficult scenarios such as large numbers of tasks or clients, and training different complex networks.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Whole-slide images (WSI) in computational pathology have high resolution with gigapixel size, but are generally with sparse regions of interest, which leads to weak diagnostic relevance and data inefficiency for each area in the slide. Most of the existing methods rely on a multiple instance learning framework that requires densely sampling local patches at high magnification. The limitation is evident in the application stage as the heavy computation for extracting patch-level features is inevitable. In this paper, we develop RLogist, a benchmarking deep reinforcement learning (DRL) method for fast observation strategy on WSIs. Imitating the diagnostic logic of human pathologists, our RL agent learns how to find regions of observation value and obtain representative features across multiple resolution levels, without having to analyze each part of the WSI at the high magnification. We benchmark our method on two whole-slide level classification tasks, including detection of metastases in WSIs of lymph node sections, and subtyping of lung cancer. Experimental results demonstrate that RLogist achieves competitive classification performance compared to typical multiple instance learning algorithms, while having a significantly short observation path. In addition, the observation path given by RLogist provides good decision-making interpretability, and its ability of reading path navigation can potentially be used by pathologists for educational/assistive purposes. Our code is available at: \url{https://github.com/tencent-ailab/RLogist}.
translated by 谷歌翻译
The problem of covariate-shift generalization has attracted intensive research attention. Previous stable learning algorithms employ sample reweighting schemes to decorrelate the covariates when there is no explicit domain information about training data. However, with finite samples, it is difficult to achieve the desirable weights that ensure perfect independence to get rid of the unstable variables. Besides, decorrelating within stable variables may bring about high variance of learned models because of the over-reduced effective sample size. A tremendous sample size is required for these algorithms to work. In this paper, with theoretical justification, we propose SVI (Sparse Variable Independence) for the covariate-shift generalization problem. We introduce sparsity constraint to compensate for the imperfectness of sample reweighting under the finite-sample setting in previous methods. Furthermore, we organically combine independence-based sample reweighting and sparsity-based variable selection in an iterative way to avoid decorrelating within stable variables, increasing the effective sample size to alleviate variance inflation. Experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the improvement of covariate-shift generalization performance brought by SVI.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Evaluating neural network performance is critical to deep neural network design but a costly procedure. Neural predictors provide an efficient solution by treating architectures as samples and learning to estimate their performance on a given task. However, existing predictors are task-dependent, predominantly estimating neural network performance on image classification benchmarks. They are also search-space dependent; each predictor is designed to make predictions for a specific architecture search space with predefined topologies and set of operations. In this paper, we propose a novel All-in-One Predictor (AIO-P), which aims to pretrain neural predictors on architecture examples from multiple, separate computer vision (CV) task domains and multiple architecture spaces, and then transfer to unseen downstream CV tasks or neural architectures. We describe our proposed techniques for general graph representation, efficient predictor pretraining and knowledge infusion techniques, as well as methods to transfer to downstream tasks/spaces. Extensive experimental results show that AIO-P can achieve Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Spearman's Rank Correlation (SRCC) below 1% and above 0.5, respectively, on a breadth of target downstream CV tasks with or without fine-tuning, outperforming a number of baselines. Moreover, AIO-P can directly transfer to new architectures not seen during training, accurately rank them and serve as an effective performance estimator when paired with an algorithm designed to preserve performance while reducing FLOPs.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Predicting neural architecture performance is a challenging task and is crucial to neural architecture design and search. Existing approaches either rely on neural performance predictors which are limited to modeling architectures in a predefined design space involving specific sets of operators and connection rules, and cannot generalize to unseen architectures, or resort to zero-cost proxies which are not always accurate. In this paper, we propose GENNAPE, a Generalized Neural Architecture Performance Estimator, which is pretrained on open neural architecture benchmarks, and aims to generalize to completely unseen architectures through combined innovations in network representation, contrastive pretraining, and fuzzy clustering-based predictor ensemble. Specifically, GENNAPE represents a given neural network as a Computation Graph (CG) of atomic operations which can model an arbitrary architecture. It first learns a graph encoder via Contrastive Learning to encourage network separation by topological features, and then trains multiple predictor heads, which are soft-aggregated according to the fuzzy membership of a neural network. Experiments show that GENNAPE pretrained on NAS-Bench-101 can achieve superior transferability to 5 different public neural network benchmarks, including NAS-Bench-201, NAS-Bench-301, MobileNet and ResNet families under no or minimum fine-tuning. We further introduce 3 challenging newly labelled neural network benchmarks: HiAML, Inception and Two-Path, which can concentrate in narrow accuracy ranges. Extensive experiments show that GENNAPE can correctly discern high-performance architectures in these families. Finally, when paired with a search algorithm, GENNAPE can find architectures that improve accuracy while reducing FLOPs on three families.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Diffusion models, which learn to reverse a signal destruction process to generate new data, typically require the signal at each step to have the same dimension. We argue that, considering the spatial redundancy in image signals, there is no need to maintain a high dimensionality in the evolution process, especially in the early generation phase. To this end, we make a theoretical generalization of the forward diffusion process via signal decomposition. Concretely, we manage to decompose an image into multiple orthogonal components and control the attenuation of each component when perturbing the image. That way, along with the noise strength increasing, we are able to diminish those inconsequential components and thus use a lower-dimensional signal to represent the source, barely losing information. Such a reformulation allows to vary dimensions in both training and inference of diffusion models. Extensive experiments on a range of datasets suggest that our approach substantially reduces the computational cost and achieves on-par or even better synthesis performance compared to baseline methods. We also show that our strategy facilitates high-resolution image synthesis and improves FID of diffusion model trained on FFHQ at $1024\times1024$ resolution from 52.40 to 10.46. Code and models will be made publicly available.
translated by 谷歌翻译
We propose a PiggyBack, a Visual Question Answering platform that allows users to apply the state-of-the-art visual-language pretrained models easily. The PiggyBack supports the full stack of visual question answering tasks, specifically data processing, model fine-tuning, and result visualisation. We integrate visual-language models, pretrained by HuggingFace, an open-source API platform of deep learning technologies; however, it cannot be runnable without programming skills or deep learning understanding. Hence, our PiggyBack supports an easy-to-use browser-based user interface with several deep learning visual language pretrained models for general users and domain experts. The PiggyBack includes the following benefits: Free availability under the MIT License, Portability due to web-based and thus runs on almost any platform, A comprehensive data creation and processing technique, and ease of use on deep learning-based visual language pretrained models. The demo video is available on YouTube and can be found at https://youtu.be/iz44RZ1lF4s.
translated by 谷歌翻译