We present Muse, a text-to-image Transformer model that achieves state-of-the-art image generation performance while being significantly more efficient than diffusion or autoregressive models. Muse is trained on a masked modeling task in discrete token space: given the text embedding extracted from a pre-trained large language model (LLM), Muse is trained to predict randomly masked image tokens. Compared to pixel-space diffusion models, such as Imagen and DALL-E 2, Muse is significantly more efficient due to the use of discrete tokens and requiring fewer sampling iterations; compared to autoregressive models, such as Parti, Muse is more efficient due to the use of parallel decoding. The use of a pre-trained LLM enables fine-grained language understanding, translating to high-fidelity image generation and the understanding of visual concepts such as objects, their spatial relationships, pose, cardinality etc. Our 900M parameter model achieves a new SOTA on CC3M, with an FID score of 6.06. The Muse 3B parameter model achieves an FID of 7.88 on zero-shot COCO evaluation, along with a CLIP score of 0.32. Muse also directly enables a number of image editing applications without the need to fine-tune or invert the model: inpainting, outpainting, and mask-free editing. More results are available at https://muse-model.github.io
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Video representation learning has been successful in video-text pre-training for zero-shot transfer, where each sentence is trained to be close to the paired video clips in a common feature space. For long videos, given a paragraph of description where the sentences describe different segments of the video, by matching all sentence-clip pairs, the paragraph and the full video are aligned implicitly. However, such unit-level similarity measure may ignore the global temporal context over a long time span, which inevitably limits the generalization ability. In this paper, we propose a contrastive learning framework TempCLR to compare the full video and the paragraph explicitly. As the video/paragraph is formulated as a sequence of clips/sentences, under the constraint of their temporal order, we use dynamic time warping to compute the minimum cumulative cost over sentence-clip pairs as the sequence-level distance. To explore the temporal dynamics, we break the consistency of temporal order by shuffling the video clips or sentences according to the temporal granularity. In this way, we obtain the representations for clips/sentences, which perceive the temporal information and thus facilitate the sequence alignment. In addition to pre-training on the video and paragraph, our approach can also generalize on the matching between different video instances. We evaluate our approach on video retrieval, action step localization, and few-shot action recognition, and achieve consistent performance gain over all three tasks. Detailed ablation studies are provided to justify the approach design.
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Image token removal is an efficient augmentation strategy for reducing the cost of computing image features. However, this efficient augmentation strategy has been found to adversely affect the accuracy of CLIP-based training. We hypothesize that removing a large portion of image tokens may improperly discard the semantic content associated with a given text description, thus constituting an incorrect pairing target in CLIP training. To address this issue, we propose an attentive token removal approach for CLIP training, which retains tokens with a high semantic correlation to the text description. The correlation scores are computed in an online fashion using the EMA version of the visual encoder. Our experiments show that the proposed attentive masking approach performs better than the previous method of random token removal for CLIP training. The approach also makes it efficient to apply multiple augmentation views to the image, as well as introducing instance contrastive learning tasks between these views into the CLIP framework. Compared to other CLIP improvements that combine different pre-training targets such as SLIP and MaskCLIP, our method is not only more effective, but also much more efficient. Specifically, using ViT-B and YFCC-15M dataset, our approach achieves $43.9\%$ top-1 accuracy on ImageNet-1K zero-shot classification, as well as $62.7/42.1$ and $38.0/23.2$ I2T/T2I retrieval accuracy on Flickr30K and MS COCO, which are $+1.1\%$, $+5.5/+0.9$, and $+4.4/+1.3$ higher than the SLIP method, while being $2.30\times$ faster. An efficient version of our approach running $1.16\times$ faster than the plain CLIP model achieves significant gains of $+5.3\%$, $+11.3/+8.0$, and $+9.5/+4.9$ on these benchmarks.
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The number of international benchmarking competitions is steadily increasing in various fields of machine learning (ML) research and practice. So far, however, little is known about the common practice as well as bottlenecks faced by the community in tackling the research questions posed. To shed light on the status quo of algorithm development in the specific field of biomedical imaging analysis, we designed an international survey that was issued to all participants of challenges conducted in conjunction with the IEEE ISBI 2021 and MICCAI 2021 conferences (80 competitions in total). The survey covered participants' expertise and working environments, their chosen strategies, as well as algorithm characteristics. A median of 72% challenge participants took part in the survey. According to our results, knowledge exchange was the primary incentive (70%) for participation, while the reception of prize money played only a minor role (16%). While a median of 80 working hours was spent on method development, a large portion of participants stated that they did not have enough time for method development (32%). 25% perceived the infrastructure to be a bottleneck. Overall, 94% of all solutions were deep learning-based. Of these, 84% were based on standard architectures. 43% of the respondents reported that the data samples (e.g., images) were too large to be processed at once. This was most commonly addressed by patch-based training (69%), downsampling (37%), and solving 3D analysis tasks as a series of 2D tasks. K-fold cross-validation on the training set was performed by only 37% of the participants and only 50% of the participants performed ensembling based on multiple identical models (61%) or heterogeneous models (39%). 48% of the respondents applied postprocessing steps.
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We introduce the MAsked Generative VIdeo Transformer, MAGVIT, to tackle various video synthesis tasks with a single model. We introduce a 3D tokenizer to quantize a video into spatial-temporal visual tokens and propose an embedding method for masked video token modeling to facilitate multi-task learning. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the quality, efficiency, and flexibility of MAGVIT. Our experiments show that (i) MAGVIT performs favorably against state-of-the-art approaches and establishes the best-published FVD on three video generation benchmarks, including the challenging Kinetics-600. (ii) MAGVIT outperforms existing methods in inference time by two orders of magnitude against diffusion models and by 60x against autoregressive models. (iii) A single MAGVIT model supports ten diverse generation tasks and generalizes across videos from different visual domains. The source code and trained models will be released to the public at https://magvit.cs.cmu.edu.
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Generalist models, which are capable of performing diverse multi-modal tasks in a task-agnostic way within a single model, have been explored recently. Being, hopefully, an alternative to approaching general-purpose AI, existing generalist models are still at an early stage, where modality and task coverage is limited. To empower multi-modal task-scaling and speed up this line of research, we release a generalist model learning system, OFASys, built on top of a declarative task interface named multi-modal instruction. At the core of OFASys is the idea of decoupling multi-modal task representations from the underlying model implementations. In OFASys, a task involving multiple modalities can be defined declaratively even with just a single line of code. The system automatically generates task plans from such instructions for training and inference. It also facilitates multi-task training for diverse multi-modal workloads. As a starting point, we provide presets of 7 different modalities and 23 highly-diverse example tasks in OFASys, with which we also develop a first-in-kind, single model, OFA+, that can handle text, image, speech, video, and motion data. The single OFA+ model achieves 95% performance in average with only 16% parameters of 15 task-finetuned models, showcasing the performance reliability of multi-modal task-scaling provided by OFASys. Available at https://github.com/OFA-Sys/OFASys
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Crowd localization aims to predict the spatial position of humans in a crowd scenario. We observe that the performance of existing methods is challenged from two aspects: (i) ranking inconsistency between test and training phases; and (ii) fixed anchor resolution may underfit or overfit crowd densities of local regions. To address these problems, we design a supervision target reassignment strategy for training to reduce ranking inconsistency and propose an anchor pyramid scheme to adaptively determine the anchor density in each image region. Extensive experimental results on three widely adopted datasets (ShanghaiTech A\&B, JHU-CROWD++, UCF-QNRF) demonstrate the favorable performance against several state-of-the-art methods.
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Various types of Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) methods have been developed, assuming that agents' policies are based on true states. Recent works have improved the robustness of MARL under uncertainties from the reward, transition probability, or other partners' policies. However, in real-world multi-agent systems, state estimations may be perturbed by sensor measurement noise or even adversaries. Agents' policies trained with only true state information will deviate from optimal solutions when facing adversarial state perturbations during execution. MARL under adversarial state perturbations has limited study. Hence, in this work, we propose a State-Adversarial Markov Game (SAMG) and make the first attempt to study the fundamental properties of MARL under state uncertainties. We prove that the optimal agent policy and the robust Nash equilibrium do not always exist for an SAMG. Instead, we define the solution concept, robust agent policy, of the proposed SAMG under adversarial state perturbations, where agents want to maximize the worst-case expected state value. We then design a gradient descent ascent-based robust MARL algorithm to learn the robust policies for the MARL agents. Our experiments show that adversarial state perturbations decrease agents' rewards for several baselines from the existing literature, while our algorithm outperforms baselines with state perturbations and significantly improves the robustness of the MARL policies under state uncertainties.
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Whole-slide images (WSI) in computational pathology have high resolution with gigapixel size, but are generally with sparse regions of interest, which leads to weak diagnostic relevance and data inefficiency for each area in the slide. Most of the existing methods rely on a multiple instance learning framework that requires densely sampling local patches at high magnification. The limitation is evident in the application stage as the heavy computation for extracting patch-level features is inevitable. In this paper, we develop RLogist, a benchmarking deep reinforcement learning (DRL) method for fast observation strategy on WSIs. Imitating the diagnostic logic of human pathologists, our RL agent learns how to find regions of observation value and obtain representative features across multiple resolution levels, without having to analyze each part of the WSI at the high magnification. We benchmark our method on two whole-slide level classification tasks, including detection of metastases in WSIs of lymph node sections, and subtyping of lung cancer. Experimental results demonstrate that RLogist achieves competitive classification performance compared to typical multiple instance learning algorithms, while having a significantly short observation path. In addition, the observation path given by RLogist provides good decision-making interpretability, and its ability of reading path navigation can potentially be used by pathologists for educational/assistive purposes. Our code is available at: \url{https://github.com/tencent-ailab/RLogist}.
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Although existing multi-object tracking (MOT) algorithms have obtained competitive performance on various benchmarks, almost all of them train and validate models on the same domain. The domain generalization problem of MOT is hardly studied. To bridge this gap, we first draw the observation that the high-level information contained in natural language is domain invariant to different tracking domains. Based on this observation, we propose to introduce natural language representation into visual MOT models for boosting the domain generalization ability. However, it is infeasible to label every tracking target with a textual description. To tackle this problem, we design two modules, namely visual context prompting (VCP) and visual-language mixing (VLM). Specifically, VCP generates visual prompts based on the input frames. VLM joints the information in the generated visual prompts and the textual prompts from a pre-defined Trackbook to obtain instance-level pseudo textual description, which is domain invariant to different tracking scenes. Through training models on MOT17 and validating them on MOT20, we observe that the pseudo textual descriptions generated by our proposed modules improve the generalization performance of query-based trackers by large margins.
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