The deep learning community has witnessed an exponentially growing interest in self-supervised learning (SSL). However, it still remains unexplored how to build a framework for learning useful representations of raw music waveforms in a self-supervised manner. In this work, we design Music2Vec, a framework exploring different SSL algorithmic components and tricks for music audio recordings. Our model achieves comparable results to the state-of-the-art (SOTA) music SSL model Jukebox, despite being significantly smaller with less than 2% of parameters of the latter. The model will be released on Huggingface(Please refer to: https://huggingface.co/m-a-p/music2vec-v1)
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Photo-realistic style transfer aims at migrating the artistic style from an exemplar style image to a content image, producing a result image without spatial distortions or unrealistic artifacts. Impressive results have been achieved by recent deep models. However, deep neural network based methods are too expensive to run in real-time. Meanwhile, bilateral grid based methods are much faster but still contain artifacts like overexposure. In this work, we propose the \textbf{Adaptive ColorMLP (AdaCM)}, an effective and efficient framework for universal photo-realistic style transfer. First, we find the complex non-linear color mapping between input and target domain can be efficiently modeled by a small multi-layer perceptron (ColorMLP) model. Then, in \textbf{AdaCM}, we adopt a CNN encoder to adaptively predict all parameters for the ColorMLP conditioned on each input content and style image pair. Experimental results demonstrate that AdaCM can generate vivid and high-quality stylization results. Meanwhile, our AdaCM is ultrafast and can process a 4K resolution image in 6ms on one V100 GPU.
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This paper studies how to flexibly integrate reconstructed 3D models into practical 3D modeling pipelines such as 3D scene creation and rendering. Due to the technical difficulty, one can only obtain rough 3D models (R3DMs) for most real objects using existing 3D reconstruction techniques. As a result, physically-based rendering (PBR) would render low-quality images or videos for scenes that are constructed by R3DMs. One promising solution would be representing real-world objects as Neural Fields such as NeRFs, which are able to generate photo-realistic renderings of an object under desired viewpoints. However, a drawback is that the synthesized views through Neural Fields Rendering (NFR) cannot reflect the simulated lighting details on R3DMs in PBR pipelines, especially when object interactions in the 3D scene creation cause local shadows. To solve this dilemma, we propose a lighting transfer network (LighTNet) to bridge NFR and PBR, such that they can benefit from each other. LighTNet reasons about a simplified image composition model, remedies the uneven surface issue caused by R3DMs, and is empowered by several perceptual-motivated constraints and a new Lab angle loss which enhances the contrast between lighting strength and colors. Comparisons demonstrate that LighTNet is superior in synthesizing impressive lighting, and is promising in pushing NFR further in practical 3D modeling workflows. Project page: https://3d-front-future.github.io/LighTNet .
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Automated detecting lung infections from computed tomography (CT) data plays an important role for combating COVID-19. However, there are still some challenges for developing AI system. 1) Most current COVID-19 infection segmentation methods mainly relied on 2D CT images, which lack 3D sequential constraint. 2) Existing 3D CT segmentation methods focus on single-scale representations, which do not achieve the multiple level receptive field sizes on 3D volume. 3) The emergent breaking out of COVID-19 makes it hard to annotate sufficient CT volumes for training deep model. To address these issues, we first build a multiple dimensional-attention convolutional neural network (MDA-CNN) to aggregate multi-scale information along different dimension of input feature maps and impose supervision on multiple predictions from different CNN layers. Second, we assign this MDA-CNN as a basic network into a novel dual multi-scale mean teacher network (DM${^2}$T-Net) for semi-supervised COVID-19 lung infection segmentation on CT volumes by leveraging unlabeled data and exploring the multi-scale information. Our DM${^2}$T-Net encourages multiple predictions at different CNN layers from the student and teacher networks to be consistent for computing a multi-scale consistency loss on unlabeled data, which is then added to the supervised loss on the labeled data from multiple predictions of MDA-CNN. Third, we collect two COVID-19 segmentation datasets to evaluate our method. The experimental results show that our network consistently outperforms the compared state-of-the-art methods.
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Learning an explainable classifier often results in low accuracy model or ends up with a huge rule set, while learning a deep model is usually more capable of handling noisy data at scale, but with the cost of hard to explain the result and weak at generalization. To mitigate this gap, we propose an end-to-end deep explainable learning approach that combines the advantage of deep model in noise handling and expert rule-based interpretability. Specifically, we propose to learn a deep data assessing model which models the data as a graph to represent the correlations among different observations, whose output will be used to extract key data features. The key features are then fed into a rule network constructed following predefined noisy expert rules with trainable parameters. As these models are correlated, we propose an end-to-end training framework, utilizing the rule classification loss to optimize the rule learning model and data assessing model at the same time. As the rule-based computation is none-differentiable, we propose a gradient linking search module to carry the gradient information from the rule learning model to the data assessing model. The proposed method is tested in an industry production system, showing comparable prediction accuracy, much higher generalization stability and better interpretability when compared with a decent deep ensemble baseline, and shows much better fitting power than pure rule-based approach.
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Reference-based image super-resolution (RefSR) is a promising SR branch and has shown great potential in overcoming the limitations of single image super-resolution. While previous state-of-the-art RefSR methods mainly focus on improving the efficacy and robustness of reference feature transfer, it is generally overlooked that a well reconstructed SR image should enable better SR reconstruction for its similar LR images when it is referred to as. Therefore, in this work, we propose a reciprocal learning framework that can appropriately leverage such a fact to reinforce the learning of a RefSR network. Besides, we deliberately design a progressive feature alignment and selection module for further improving the RefSR task. The newly proposed module aligns reference-input images at multi-scale feature spaces and performs reference-aware feature selection in a progressive manner, thus more precise reference features can be transferred into the input features and the network capability is enhanced. Our reciprocal learning paradigm is model-agnostic and it can be applied to arbitrary RefSR models. We empirically show that multiple recent state-of-the-art RefSR models can be consistently improved with our reciprocal learning paradigm. Furthermore, our proposed model together with the reciprocal learning strategy sets new state-of-the-art performances on multiple benchmarks.
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Image super-resolution is a common task on mobile and IoT devices, where one often needs to upscale and enhance low-resolution images and video frames. While numerous solutions have been proposed for this problem in the past, they are usually not compatible with low-power mobile NPUs having many computational and memory constraints. In this Mobile AI challenge, we address this problem and propose the participants to design an efficient quantized image super-resolution solution that can demonstrate a real-time performance on mobile NPUs. The participants were provided with the DIV2K dataset and trained INT8 models to do a high-quality 3X image upscaling. The runtime of all models was evaluated on the Synaptics VS680 Smart Home board with a dedicated edge NPU capable of accelerating quantized neural networks. All proposed solutions are fully compatible with the above NPU, demonstrating an up to 60 FPS rate when reconstructing Full HD resolution images. A detailed description of all models developed in the challenge is provided in this paper.
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Various depth estimation models are now widely used on many mobile and IoT devices for image segmentation, bokeh effect rendering, object tracking and many other mobile tasks. Thus, it is very crucial to have efficient and accurate depth estimation models that can run fast on low-power mobile chipsets. In this Mobile AI challenge, the target was to develop deep learning-based single image depth estimation solutions that can show a real-time performance on IoT platforms and smartphones. For this, the participants used a large-scale RGB-to-depth dataset that was collected with the ZED stereo camera capable to generated depth maps for objects located at up to 50 meters. The runtime of all models was evaluated on the Raspberry Pi 4 platform, where the developed solutions were able to generate VGA resolution depth maps at up to 27 FPS while achieving high fidelity results. All models developed in the challenge are also compatible with any Android or Linux-based mobile devices, their detailed description is provided in this paper.
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Fairness has become a trending topic in natural language processing (NLP), which addresses biases targeting certain social groups such as genders and religions. However, regional bias in language models (LMs), a long-standing global discrimination problem, still remains unexplored. This paper bridges the gap by analysing the regional bias learned by the pre-trained language models that are broadly used in NLP tasks. In addition to verifying the existence of regional bias in LMs, we find that the biases on regional groups can be strongly influenced by the geographical clustering of the groups. We accordingly propose a HiErarchical Regional Bias evaluation method (HERB) utilising the information from the sub-region clusters to quantify the bias in pre-trained LMs. Experiments show that our hierarchical metric can effectively evaluate the regional bias with respect to comprehensive topics and measure the potential regional bias that can be propagated to downstream tasks. Our codes are available at https://github.com/Bernard-Yang/HERB.
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This paper details our participation in the Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text (CASE) workshop @ EMNLP 2022, where we take part in Subtask 1 of Shared Task 3. We approach the given task of event causality detection by proposing a self-training pipeline that follows a teacher-student classifier method. More specifically, we initially train a teacher model on the true, original task data, and use that teacher model to self-label data to be used in the training of a separate student model for the final task prediction. We test how restricting the number of positive or negative self-labeled examples in the self-training process affects classification performance. Our final results show that using self-training produces a comprehensive performance improvement across all models and self-labeled training sets tested within the task of event causality sequence classification. On top of that, we find that self-training performance did not diminish even when restricting either positive/negative examples used in training. Our code is be publicly available at https://github.com/Gzhang-umich/1CademyTeamOfCASE.
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