Pre-trained language models (PLMs) have exhibited remarkable few-shot learning capabilities when provided a few examples in a natural language prompt as demonstrations of test instances, i.e., in-context learning. However, the performance of in-context learning is susceptible to the choice of prompt format, training examples and the ordering of the training examples. In this paper, we propose a novel nearest-neighbor calibration framework for in-context learning to ease this issue. It is inspired by a phenomenon that the in-context learning paradigm produces incorrect labels when inferring training instances, which provides a useful supervised signal to calibrate predictions. Thus, our method directly augments the predictions with a $k$-nearest-neighbor ($k$NN) classifier over a datastore of cached few-shot instance representations obtained by PLMs and their corresponding labels. Then adaptive neighbor selection and feature regularization modules are introduced to make full use of a few support instances to reduce the $k$NN retrieval noise. Experiments on various few-shot text classification tasks demonstrate that our method significantly improves in-context learning, while even achieving comparable performance with state-of-the-art tuning-based approaches in some sentiment analysis tasks.
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Focusing on the complicated pathological features, such as blurred boundaries, severe scale differences between symptoms, background noise interference, etc., in the task of retinal edema lesions joint segmentation from OCT images and enabling the segmentation results more reliable. In this paper, we propose a novel reliable multi-scale wavelet-enhanced transformer network, which can provide accurate segmentation results with reliability assessment. Specifically, aiming at improving the model's ability to learn the complex pathological features of retinal edema lesions in OCT images, we develop a novel segmentation backbone that integrates a wavelet-enhanced feature extractor network and a multi-scale transformer module of our newly designed. Meanwhile, to make the segmentation results more reliable, a novel uncertainty segmentation head based on the subjective logical evidential theory is introduced to generate the final segmentation results with a corresponding overall uncertainty evaluation score map. We conduct comprehensive experiments on the public database of AI-Challenge 2018 for retinal edema lesions segmentation, and the results show that our proposed method achieves better segmentation accuracy with a high degree of reliability as compared to other state-of-the-art segmentation approaches. The code will be released on: https://github.com/LooKing9218/ReliableRESeg.
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Accurate segmentation of power lines in aerial images is essential to ensure the flight safety of aerial vehicles. Acquiring high-quality ground truth annotations for training a deep learning model is a laborious process. Therefore, developing algorithms that can leverage knowledge from labelled synthetic data to unlabelled real images is highly demanded. This process is studied in Unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA). Recent approaches to self-training have achieved remarkable performance in UDA for semantic segmentation, which trains a model with pseudo labels on the target domain. However, the pseudo labels are noisy due to a discrepancy in the two data distributions. We identify that context dependency is important for bridging this domain gap. Motivated by this, we propose QuadFormer, a novel framework designed for domain adaptive semantic segmentation. The hierarchical quadruple transformer combines cross-attention and self-attention mechanisms to adapt transferable context. Based on cross-attentive and self-attentive feature representations, we introduce a pseudo label correction scheme to online denoise the pseudo labels and reduce the domain gap. Additionally, we present two datasets - ARPLSyn and ARPLReal to further advance research in unsupervised domain adaptive powerline segmentation. Finally, experimental results indicate that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance for the domain adaptive power line segmentation on ARPLSyn$\rightarrow$TTTPLA and ARPLSyn$\rightarrow$ARPLReal.
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This paper presents our solution for the 2nd COVID-19 Severity Detection Competition. This task aims to distinguish the Mild, Moderate, Severe, and Critical grades in COVID-19 chest CT images. In our approach, we devise a novel infection-aware 3D Contrastive Mixup Classification network for severity grading. Specifcally, we train two segmentation networks to first extract the lung region and then the inner lesion region. The lesion segmentation mask serves as complementary information for the original CT slices. To relieve the issue of imbalanced data distribution, we further improve the advanced Contrastive Mixup Classification network by weighted cross-entropy loss. On the COVID-19 severity detection leaderboard, our approach won the first place with a Macro F1 Score of 51.76%. It significantly outperforms the baseline method by over 11.46%.
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Automatic diabetic retinopathy (DR) grading based on fundus photography has been widely explored to benefit the routine screening and early treatment. Existing researches generally focus on single-field fundus images, which have limited field of view for precise eye examinations. In clinical applications, ophthalmologists adopt two-field fundus photography as the dominating tool, where the information from each field (i.e.,macula-centric and optic disc-centric) is highly correlated and complementary, and benefits comprehensive decisions. However, automatic DR grading based on two-field fundus photography remains a challenging task due to the lack of publicly available datasets and effective fusion strategies. In this work, we first construct a new benchmark dataset (DRTiD) for DR grading, consisting of 3,100 two-field fundus images. To the best of our knowledge, it is the largest public DR dataset with diverse and high-quality two-field images. Then, we propose a novel DR grading approach, namely Cross-Field Transformer (CrossFiT), to capture the correspondence between two fields as well as the long-range spatial correlations within each field. Considering the inherent two-field geometric constraints, we particularly define aligned position embeddings to preserve relative consistent position in fundus. Besides, we perform masked cross-field attention during interaction to flter the noisy relations between fields. Extensive experiments on our DRTiD dataset and a public DeepDRiD dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our CrossFiT network. The new dataset and the source code of CrossFiT will be publicly available at https://github.com/FDU-VTS/DRTiD.
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Responding with multi-modal content has been recognized as an essential capability for an intelligent conversational agent. In this paper, we introduce the MMDialog dataset to better facilitate multi-modal conversation. MMDialog is composed of a curated set of 1.08 million real-world dialogues with 1.53 million unique images across 4,184 topics. MMDialog has two main and unique advantages. First, it is the largest multi-modal conversation dataset by the number of dialogues by 8x. Second, it contains massive topics to generalize the open-domain. To build engaging dialogue system with this dataset, we propose and normalize two response producing tasks based on retrieval and generative scenarios. In addition, we build two baselines for above tasks with state-of-the-art techniques and report their experimental performance. We also propose a novel evaluation metric MM-Relevance to measure the multi-modal responses. Our dataset and scripts are available in https://github.com/victorsungo/MMDialog.
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The role of mobile cameras increased dramatically over the past few years, leading to more and more research in automatic image quality enhancement and RAW photo processing. In this Mobile AI challenge, the target was to develop an efficient end-to-end AI-based image signal processing (ISP) pipeline replacing the standard mobile ISPs that can run on modern smartphone GPUs using TensorFlow Lite. The participants were provided with a large-scale Fujifilm UltraISP dataset consisting of thousands of paired photos captured with a normal mobile camera sensor and a professional 102MP medium-format FujiFilm GFX100 camera. The runtime of the resulting models was evaluated on the Snapdragon's 8 Gen 1 GPU that provides excellent acceleration results for the majority of common deep learning ops. The proposed solutions are compatible with all recent mobile GPUs, being able to process Full HD photos in less than 20-50 milliseconds while achieving high fidelity results. A detailed description of all models developed in this challenge is provided in this paper.
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) is having a tremendous impact across most areas of science. Applications of AI in healthcare have the potential to improve our ability to detect, diagnose, prognose, and intervene on human disease. For AI models to be used clinically, they need to be made safe, reproducible and robust, and the underlying software framework must be aware of the particularities (e.g. geometry, physiology, physics) of medical data being processed. This work introduces MONAI, a freely available, community-supported, and consortium-led PyTorch-based framework for deep learning in healthcare. MONAI extends PyTorch to support medical data, with a particular focus on imaging, and provide purpose-specific AI model architectures, transformations and utilities that streamline the development and deployment of medical AI models. MONAI follows best practices for software-development, providing an easy-to-use, robust, well-documented, and well-tested software framework. MONAI preserves the simple, additive, and compositional approach of its underlying PyTorch libraries. MONAI is being used by and receiving contributions from research, clinical and industrial teams from around the world, who are pursuing applications spanning nearly every aspect of healthcare.
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Federated learning (FL) enables the building of robust and generalizable AI models by leveraging diverse datasets from multiple collaborators without centralizing the data. We created NVIDIA FLARE as an open-source software development kit (SDK) to make it easier for data scientists to use FL in their research and real-world applications. The SDK includes solutions for state-of-the-art FL algorithms and federated machine learning approaches, which facilitate building workflows for distributed learning across enterprises and enable platform developers to create a secure, privacy-preserving offering for multiparty collaboration utilizing homomorphic encryption or differential privacy. The SDK is a lightweight, flexible, and scalable Python package, and allows researchers to bring their data science workflows implemented in any training libraries (PyTorch, TensorFlow, XGBoost, or even NumPy) and apply them in real-world FL settings. This paper introduces the key design principles of FLARE and illustrates some use cases (e.g., COVID analysis) with customizable FL workflows that implement different privacy-preserving algorithms. Code is available at https://github.com/NVIDIA/NVFlare.
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Deep learning (DL) methods have been widely applied to anomaly-based network intrusion detection system (NIDS) to detect malicious traffic. To expand the usage scenarios of DL-based methods, the federated learning (FL) framework allows multiple users to train a global model on the basis of respecting individual data privacy. However, it has not yet been systematically evaluated how robust FL-based NIDSs are against existing privacy attacks under existing defenses. To address this issue, we propose two privacy evaluation metrics designed for FL-based NIDSs, including (1) privacy score that evaluates the similarity between the original and recovered traffic features using reconstruction attacks, and (2) evasion rate against NIDSs using Generative Adversarial Network-based adversarial attack with the reconstructed benign traffic. We conduct experiments to show that existing defenses provide little protection that the corresponding adversarial traffic can even evade the SOTA NIDS Kitsune. To defend against such attacks and build a more robust FL-based NIDS, we further propose FedDef, a novel optimization-based input perturbation defense strategy with theoretical guarantee. It achieves both high utility by minimizing the gradient distance and strong privacy protection by maximizing the input distance. We experimentally evaluate four existing defenses on four datasets and show that our defense outperforms all the baselines in terms of privacy protection with up to 7 times higher privacy score, while maintaining model accuracy loss within 3% under optimal parameter combination.
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