Camouflaged object detection (COD) aims to detect/segment camouflaged objects embedded in the environment, which has attracted increasing attention over the past decades. Although several COD methods have been developed, they still suffer from unsatisfactory performance due to the intrinsic similarities between the foreground objects and background surroundings. In this paper, we propose a novel Feature Aggregation and Propagation Network (FAP-Net) for camouflaged object detection. Specifically, we propose a Boundary Guidance Module (BGM) to explicitly model the boundary characteristic, which can provide boundary-enhanced features to boost the COD performance. To capture the scale variations of the camouflaged objects, we propose a Multi-scale Feature Aggregation Module (MFAM) to characterize the multi-scale information from each layer and obtain the aggregated feature representations. Furthermore, we propose a Cross-level Fusion and Propagation Module (CFPM). In the CFPM, the feature fusion part can effectively integrate the features from adjacent layers to exploit the cross-level correlations, and the feature propagation part can transmit valuable context information from the encoder to the decoder network via a gate unit. Finally, we formulate a unified and end-to-end trainable framework where cross-level features can be effectively fused and propagated for capturing rich context information. Extensive experiments on three benchmark camouflaged datasets demonstrate that our FAP-Net outperforms other state-of-the-art COD models. Moreover, our model can be extended to the polyp segmentation task, and the comparison results further validate the effectiveness of the proposed model in segmenting polyps. The source code and results will be released at https://github.com/taozh2017/FAPNet.
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Domain generalization (DG) aims to train a model to perform well in unseen domains under different distributions. This paper considers a more realistic yet more challenging scenario,namely Single Domain Generalization (Single-DG), where only a single source domain is available for training. To tackle this challenge, we first try to understand when neural networks fail to generalize? We empirically ascertain a property of a model that correlates strongly with its generalization that we coin as "model sensitivity". Based on our analysis, we propose a novel strategy of Spectral Adversarial Data Augmentation (SADA) to generate augmented images targeted at the highly sensitive frequencies. Models trained with these hard-to-learn samples can effectively suppress the sensitivity in the frequency space, which leads to improved generalization performance. Extensive experiments on multiple public datasets demonstrate the superiority of our approach, which surpasses the state-of-the-art single-DG methods.
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Unit commitment (UC) are essential tools to transmission system operators for finding the most economical and feasible generation schedules and dispatch signals. Constraint screening has been receiving attention as it holds the promise for reducing a number of inactive or redundant constraints in the UC problem, so that the solution process of large scale UC problem can be accelerated by considering the reduced optimization problem. Standard constraint screening approach relies on optimizing over load and generations to find binding line flow constraints, yet the screening is conservative with a large percentage of constraints still reserved for the UC problem. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning (ML) model to predict the most economical costs given load inputs. Such ML model bridges the cost perspectives of UC decisions to the optimization-based constraint screening model, and can screen out higher proportion of operational constraints. We verify the proposed method's performance on both sample-aware and sample-agnostic setting, and illustrate the proposed scheme can further reduce the computation time on a variety of setup for UC problems.
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Object goal navigation (ObjectNav) in unseen environments is a fundamental task for Embodied AI. Agents in existing works learn ObjectNav policies based on 2D maps, scene graphs, or image sequences. Considering this task happens in 3D space, a 3D-aware agent can advance its ObjectNav capability via learning from fine-grained spatial information. However, leveraging 3D scene representation can be prohibitively unpractical for policy learning in this floor-level task, due to low sample efficiency and expensive computational cost. In this work, we propose a framework for the challenging 3D-aware ObjectNav based on two straightforward sub-policies. The two sub-polices, namely corner-guided exploration policy and category-aware identification policy, simultaneously perform by utilizing online fused 3D points as observation. Through extensive experiments, we show that this framework can dramatically improve the performance in ObjectNav through learning from 3D scene representation. Our framework achieves the best performance among all modular-based methods on the Matterport3D and Gibson datasets, while requiring (up to 30x) less computational cost for training.
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In this paper, we present ExtremeBERT, a toolkit for accelerating and customizing BERT pretraining. Our goal is to provide an easy-to-use BERT pretraining toolkit for the research community and industry. Thus, the pretraining of popular language models on customized datasets is affordable with limited resources. Experiments show that, to achieve the same or better GLUE scores, the time cost of our toolkit is over $6\times$ times less for BERT Base and $9\times$ times less for BERT Large when compared with the original BERT paper. The documentation and code are released at https://github.com/extreme-bert/extreme-bert under the Apache-2.0 license.
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We study a multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) problem where the agents interact over a given network. The goal of the agents is to cooperatively maximize the average of their entropy-regularized long-term rewards. To overcome the curse of dimensionality and to reduce communication, we propose a Localized Policy Iteration (LPI) algorithm that provably learns a near-globally-optimal policy using only local information. In particular, we show that, despite restricting each agent's attention to only its $\kappa$-hop neighborhood, the agents are able to learn a policy with an optimality gap that decays polynomially in $\kappa$. In addition, we show the finite-sample convergence of LPI to the global optimal policy, which explicitly captures the trade-off between optimality and computational complexity in choosing $\kappa$. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of LPI.
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Video dubbing aims to translate the original speech in a film or television program into the speech in a target language, which can be achieved with a cascaded system consisting of speech recognition, machine translation and speech synthesis. To ensure the translated speech to be well aligned with the corresponding video, the length/duration of the translated speech should be as close as possible to that of the original speech, which requires strict length control. Previous works usually control the number of words or characters generated by the machine translation model to be similar to the source sentence, without considering the isochronicity of speech as the speech duration of words/characters in different languages varies. In this paper, we propose a machine translation system tailored for the task of video dubbing, which directly considers the speech duration of each token in translation, to match the length of source and target speech. Specifically, we control the speech length of generated sentence by guiding the prediction of each word with the duration information, including the speech duration of itself as well as how much duration is left for the remaining words. We design experiments on four language directions (German -> English, Spanish -> English, Chinese <-> English), and the results show that the proposed method achieves better length control ability on the generated speech than baseline methods. To make up the lack of real-world datasets, we also construct a real-world test set collected from films to provide comprehensive evaluations on the video dubbing task.
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Out-Of-Distribution (OOD) detection has received broad attention over the years, aiming to ensure the reliability and safety of deep neural networks (DNNs) in real-world scenarios by rejecting incorrect predictions. However, we notice a discrepancy between the conventional evaluation vs. the essential purpose of OOD detection. On the one hand, the conventional evaluation exclusively considers risks caused by label-space distribution shifts while ignoring the risks from input-space distribution shifts. On the other hand, the conventional evaluation reward detection methods for not rejecting the misclassified image in the validation dataset. However, the misclassified image can also cause risks and should be rejected. We appeal to rethink OOD detection from a human-centric perspective, that a proper detection method should reject the case that the deep model's prediction mismatches the human expectations and adopt the case that the deep model's prediction meets the human expectations. We propose a human-centric evaluation and conduct extensive experiments on 45 classifiers and 8 test datasets. We find that the simple baseline OOD detection method can achieve comparable and even better performance than the recently proposed methods, which means that the development in OOD detection in the past years may be overestimated. Additionally, our experiments demonstrate that model selection is non-trivial for OOD detection and should be considered as an integral of the proposed method, which differs from the claim in existing works that proposed methods are universal across different models.
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Positive-Unlabeled (PU) learning aims to learn a model with rare positive samples and abundant unlabeled samples. Compared with classical binary classification, the task of PU learning is much more challenging due to the existence of many incompletely-annotated data instances. Since only part of the most confident positive samples are available and evidence is not enough to categorize the rest samples, many of these unlabeled data may also be the positive samples. Research on this topic is particularly useful and essential to many real-world tasks which demand very expensive labelling cost. For example, the recognition tasks in disease diagnosis, recommendation system and satellite image recognition may only have few positive samples that can be annotated by the experts. These methods mainly omit the intrinsic hardness of some unlabeled data, which can result in sub-optimal performance as a consequence of fitting the easy noisy data and not sufficiently utilizing the hard data. In this paper, we focus on improving the commonly-used nnPU with a novel training pipeline. We highlight the intrinsic difference of hardness of samples in the dataset and the proper learning strategies for easy and hard data. By considering this fact, we propose first splitting the unlabeled dataset with an early-stop strategy. The samples that have inconsistent predictions between the temporary and base model are considered as hard samples. Then the model utilizes a noise-tolerant Jensen-Shannon divergence loss for easy data; and a dual-source consistency regularization for hard data which includes a cross-consistency between student and base model for low-level features and self-consistency for high-level features and predictions, respectively.
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Unsupervised image registration commonly adopts U-Net style networks to predict dense displacement fields in the full-resolution spatial domain. For high-resolution volumetric image data, this process is however resource intensive and time-consuming. To tackle this problem, we propose the Fourier-Net, replacing the expansive path in a U-Net style network with a parameter-free model-driven decoder. Specifically, instead of our Fourier-Net learning to output a full-resolution displacement field in the spatial domain, we learn its low-dimensional representation in a band-limited Fourier domain. This representation is then decoded by our devised model-driven decoder (consisting of a zero padding layer and an inverse discrete Fourier transform layer) to the dense, full-resolution displacement field in the spatial domain. These changes allow our unsupervised Fourier-Net to contain fewer parameters and computational operations, resulting in faster inference speeds. Fourier-Net is then evaluated on two public 3D brain datasets against various state-of-the-art approaches. For example, when compared to a recent transformer-based method, i.e., TransMorph, our Fourier-Net, only using 0.22$\%$ of its parameters and 6.66$\%$ of the mult-adds, achieves a 0.6\% higher Dice score and an 11.48$\times$ faster inference speed. Code is available at \url{https://github.com/xi-jia/Fourier-Net}.
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