Decompilation aims to transform a low-level program language (LPL) (eg., binary file) into its functionally-equivalent high-level program language (HPL) (e.g., C/C++). It is a core technology in software security, especially in vulnerability discovery and malware analysis. In recent years, with the successful application of neural machine translation (NMT) models in natural language processing (NLP), researchers have tried to build neural decompilers by borrowing the idea of NMT. They formulate the decompilation process as a translation problem between LPL and HPL, aiming to reduce the human cost required to develop decompilation tools and improve their generalizability. However, state-of-the-art learning-based decompilers do not cope well with compiler-optimized binaries. Since real-world binaries are mostly compiler-optimized, decompilers that do not consider optimized binaries have limited practical significance. In this paper, we propose a novel learning-based approach named NeurDP, that targets compiler-optimized binaries. NeurDP uses a graph neural network (GNN) model to convert LPL to an intermediate representation (IR), which bridges the gap between source code and optimized binary. We also design an Optimized Translation Unit (OTU) to split functions into smaller code fragments for better translation performance. Evaluation results on datasets containing various types of statements show that NeurDP can decompile optimized binaries with 45.21% higher accuracy than state-of-the-art neural decompilation frameworks.
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A storyboard is a roadmap for video creation which consists of shot-by-shot images to visualize key plots in a text synopsis. Creating video storyboards however remains challenging which not only requires association between high-level texts and images, but also demands for long-term reasoning to make transitions smooth across shots. In this paper, we propose a new task called Text synopsis to Video Storyboard (TeViS) which aims to retrieve an ordered sequence of images to visualize the text synopsis. We construct a MovieNet-TeViS benchmark based on the public MovieNet dataset. It contains 10K text synopses each paired with keyframes that are manually selected from corresponding movies by considering both relevance and cinematic coherence. We also present an encoder-decoder baseline for the task. The model uses a pretrained vision-and-language model to improve high-level text-image matching. To improve coherence in long-term shots, we further propose to pre-train the decoder on large-scale movie frames without text. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed model significantly outperforms other models to create text-relevant and coherent storyboards. Nevertheless, there is still a large gap compared to human performance suggesting room for promising future work.
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Implicit regularization is an important way to interpret neural networks. Recent theory starts to explain implicit regularization with the model of deep matrix factorization (DMF) and analyze the trajectory of discrete gradient dynamics in the optimization process. These discrete gradient dynamics are relatively small but not infinitesimal, thus fitting well with the practical implementation of neural networks. Currently, discrete gradient dynamics analysis has been successfully applied to shallow networks but encounters the difficulty of complex computation for deep networks. In this work, we introduce another discrete gradient dynamics approach to explain implicit regularization, i.e. landscape analysis. It mainly focuses on gradient regions, such as saddle points and local minima. We theoretically establish the connection between saddle point escaping (SPE) stages and the matrix rank in DMF. We prove that, for a rank-R matrix reconstruction, DMF will converge to a second-order critical point after R stages of SPE. This conclusion is further experimentally verified on a low-rank matrix reconstruction problem. This work provides a new theory to analyze implicit regularization in deep learning.
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Score-based diffusion models have captured widespread attention and funded fast progress of recent vision generative tasks. In this paper, we focus on diffusion model backbone which has been much neglected before. We systematically explore vision Transformers as diffusion learners for various generative tasks. With our improvements the performance of vanilla ViT-based backbone (IU-ViT) is boosted to be on par with traditional U-Net-based methods. We further provide a hypothesis on the implication of disentangling the generative backbone as an encoder-decoder structure and show proof-of-concept experiments verifying the effectiveness of a stronger encoder for generative tasks with ASymmetriC ENcoder Decoder (ASCEND). Our improvements achieve competitive results on CIFAR-10, CelebA, LSUN, CUB Bird and large-resolution text-to-image tasks. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to successfully train a single diffusion model on text-to-image task beyond 64x64 resolution. We hope this will motivate people to rethink the modeling choices and the training pipelines for diffusion-based generative models.
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Our situated environment is full of uncertainty and highly dynamic, thus hindering the widespread adoption of machine-led Intelligent Decision-Making (IDM) in real world scenarios. This means IDM should have the capability of continuously learning new skills and efficiently generalizing across wider applications. IDM benefits from any new approaches and theoretical breakthroughs that exhibit Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) breaking the barriers between tasks and applications. Recent research has well-examined neural architecture, Transformer, as a backbone foundation model and its generalization to various tasks, including computer vision, natural language processing, and reinforcement learning. We therefore argue that a foundation decision model (FDM) can be established by formulating various decision-making tasks as a sequence decoding task using the Transformer architecture; this would be a promising solution to advance the applications of IDM in more complex real world tasks. In this paper, we elaborate on how a foundation decision model improves the efficiency and generalization of IDM. We also discuss potential applications of a FDM in multi-agent game AI, production scheduling, and robotics tasks. Finally, through a case study, we demonstrate our realization of the FDM, DigitalBrain (DB1) with 1.2 billion parameters, which achieves human-level performance over 453 tasks, including text generation, images caption, video games playing, robotic control, and traveling salesman problems. As a foundation decision model, DB1 would be a baby step towards more autonomous and efficient real world IDM applications.
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A computational graph in a deep neural network (DNN) denotes a specific data flow diagram (DFD) composed of many tensors and operators. Existing toolkits for visualizing computational graphs are not applicable when the structure is highly complicated and large-scale (e.g., BERT [1]). To address this problem, we propose leveraging a suite of visual simplification techniques, including a cycle-removing method, a module-based edge-pruning algorithm, and an isomorphic subgraph stacking strategy. We design and implement an interactive visualization system that is suitable for computational graphs with up to 10 thousand elements. Experimental results and usage scenarios demonstrate that our tool reduces 60% elements on average and hence enhances the performance for recognizing and diagnosing DNN models. Our contributions are integrated into an open-source DNN visualization toolkit, namely, MindInsight [2].
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Fine-grained capturing of 3D HOI boosts human activity understanding and facilitates downstream visual tasks, including action recognition, holistic scene reconstruction, and human motion synthesis. Despite its significance, existing works mostly assume that humans interact with rigid objects using only a few body parts, limiting their scope. In this paper, we address the challenging problem of f-AHOI, wherein the whole human bodies interact with articulated objects, whose parts are connected by movable joints. We present CHAIRS, a large-scale motion-captured f-AHOI dataset, consisting of 16.2 hours of versatile interactions between 46 participants and 81 articulated and rigid sittable objects. CHAIRS provides 3D meshes of both humans and articulated objects during the entire interactive process, as well as realistic and physically plausible full-body interactions. We show the value of CHAIRS with object pose estimation. By learning the geometrical relationships in HOI, we devise the very first model that leverage human pose estimation to tackle the estimation of articulated object poses and shapes during whole-body interactions. Given an image and an estimated human pose, our model first reconstructs the pose and shape of the object, then optimizes the reconstruction according to a learned interaction prior. Under both evaluation settings (e.g., with or without the knowledge of objects' geometries/structures), our model significantly outperforms baselines. We hope CHAIRS will promote the community towards finer-grained interaction understanding. We will make the data/code publicly available.
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We propose AnyTOD, an end-to-end task-oriented dialog (TOD) system with zero-shot capability for unseen tasks. We view TOD as a program executed by a language model (LM), where program logic and ontology is provided by a designer in the form of a schema. To enable generalization onto unseen schemas and programs without prior training, AnyTOD adopts a neuro-symbolic approach. A neural LM keeps track of events that occur during a conversation, and a symbolic program implementing the dialog policy is executed to recommend next actions AnyTOD should take. This approach drastically reduces data annotation and model training requirements, addressing a long-standing challenge in TOD research: rapidly adapting a TOD system to unseen tasks and domains. We demonstrate state-of-the-art results on the STAR and ABCD benchmarks, as well as AnyTOD's strong zero-shot transfer capability in low-resource settings. In addition, we release STARv2, an updated version of the STAR dataset with richer data annotations, for benchmarking zero-shot end-to-end TOD models.
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With an increasing amount of data in the art world, discovering artists and artworks suitable to collectors' tastes becomes a challenge. It is no longer enough to use visual information, as contextual information about the artist has become just as important in contemporary art. In this work, we present a generic Natural Language Processing framework (called ArtLM) to discover the connections among contemporary artists based on their biographies. In this approach, we first continue to pre-train the existing general English language models with a large amount of unlabelled art-related data. We then fine-tune this new pre-trained model with our biography pair dataset manually annotated by a team of professionals in the art industry. With extensive experiments, we demonstrate that our ArtLM achieves 85.6% accuracy and 84.0% F1 score and outperforms other baseline models. We also provide a visualisation and a qualitative analysis of the artist network built from ArtLM's outputs.
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Artificial intelligence is to teach machines to take actions like humans. To achieve intelligent teaching, the machine learning community becomes to think about a promising topic named machine teaching where the teacher is to design the optimal (usually minimal) teaching set given a target model and a specific learner. However, previous works usually require numerous teaching examples along with large iterations to guide learners to converge, which is costly. In this paper, we consider a more intelligent teaching paradigm named one-shot machine teaching which costs fewer examples to converge faster. Different from typical teaching, this advanced paradigm establishes a tractable mapping from the teaching set to the model parameter. Theoretically, we prove that this mapping is surjective, which serves to an existence guarantee of the optimal teaching set. Then, relying on the surjective mapping from the teaching set to the parameter, we develop a design strategy of the optimal teaching set under appropriate settings, of which two popular efficiency metrics, teaching dimension and iterative teaching dimension are one. Extensive experiments verify the efficiency of our strategy and further demonstrate the intelligence of this new teaching paradigm.
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