Vision Transformers have shown great promise recently for many vision tasks due to the insightful architecture design and attention mechanism. By revisiting the self-attention responses in Transformers, we empirically observe two interesting issues. First, Vision Transformers present a queryirrelevant behavior at deep layers, where the attention maps exhibit nearly consistent contexts in global scope, regardless of the query patch position (also head-irrelevant). Second, the attention maps are intrinsically sparse, few tokens dominate the attention weights; introducing the knowledge from ConvNets would largely smooth the attention and enhance the performance. Motivated by above observations, we generalize self-attention formulation to abstract a queryirrelevant global context directly and further integrate the global context into convolutions. The resulting model, a Fully Convolutional Vision Transformer (i.e., FCViT), purely consists of convolutional layers and firmly inherits the merits of both attention mechanism and convolutions, including dynamic property, weight sharing, and short- and long-range feature modeling, etc. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of FCViT. With less than 14M parameters, our FCViT-S12 outperforms related work ResT-Lite by 3.7% top1 accuracy on ImageNet-1K. When scaling FCViT to larger models, we still perform better than previous state-of-the-art ConvNeXt with even fewer parameters. FCViT-based models also demonstrate promising transferability to downstream tasks, like object detection, instance segmentation, and semantic segmentation. Codes and models are made available at: https://github.com/ma-xu/FCViT.
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