We explore unifying a neural segmenter with two-pass cascaded encoder ASR into a single model. A key challenge is allowing the segmenter (which runs in real-time, synchronously with the decoder) to finalize the 2nd pass (which runs 900 ms behind real-time) without introducing user-perceived latency or deletion errors during inference. We propose a design where the neural segmenter is integrated with the causal 1st pass decoder to emit a end-of-segment (EOS) signal in real-time. The EOS signal is then used to finalize the non-causal 2nd pass. We experiment with different ways to finalize the 2nd pass, and find that a novel dummy frame injection strategy allows for simultaneous high quality 2nd pass results and low finalization latency. On a real-world long-form captioning task (YouTube), we achieve 2.4% relative WER and 140 ms EOS latency gains over a baseline VAD-based segmenter with the same cascaded encoder.
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