在这项工作中,我们详细描述了深度学习和计算机视觉如何帮助检测AirTender系统的故障事件,AirTender系统是售后摩托车阻尼系统组件。监测飞行员运行的最有效方法之一是在其表面上寻找油污渍。从实时图像开始,首先在摩托车悬架系统中检测到Airtender,然后二进制分类器确定Airtender是否在溢出油。该检测是在YOLO5架构的帮助下进行的,而分类是在适当设计的卷积神经网络油网40的帮助下进行的。为了更清楚地检测油的泄漏,我们用荧光染料稀释了荧光染料,激发波长峰值约为390 nm。然后用合适的紫外线LED照亮飞行员。整个系统是设计低成本检测设置的尝试。船上设备(例如迷你计算机)被放置在悬架系统附近,并连接到全高清摄像头框架架上。板载设备通过我们的神经网络算法,然后能够将AirTender定位并分类为正常功能(非泄漏图像)或异常(泄漏图像)。
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Gaussian Process regression is a kernel method successfully adopted in many real-life applications. Recently, there is a growing interest on extending this method to non-Euclidean input spaces, like the one considered in this paper, consisting of probability measures. Although a Positive Definite kernel can be defined by using a suitable distance -- the Wasserstein distance -- the common procedure for learning the Gaussian Process model can fail due to numerical issues, arising earlier and more frequently than in the case of an Euclidean input space and, as demonstrated in this paper, that cannot be avoided by adding artificial noise (nugget effect) as usually done. This paper uncovers the main reason of these issues, that is a non-stationarity relationship between the Wasserstein-based squared exponential kernel and its Euclidean-based counterpart. As a relevant result, the Gaussian Process model is learned by assuming the input space as Euclidean and then an algebraic transformation, based on the uncovered relation, is used to transform it into a non-stationary and Wasserstein-based Gaussian Process model over probability measures. This algebraic transformation is simpler than log-exp maps used in the case of data belonging to Riemannian manifolds and recently extended to consider the pseudo-Riemannian structure of an input space equipped with the Wasserstein distance.
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We present a novel depth completion approach agnostic to the sparsity of depth points, that is very likely to vary in many practical applications. State-of-the-art approaches yield accurate results only when processing a specific density and distribution of input points, i.e. the one observed during training, narrowing their deployment in real use cases. On the contrary, our solution is robust to uneven distributions and extremely low densities never witnessed during training. Experimental results on standard indoor and outdoor benchmarks highlight the robustness of our framework, achieving accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art methods when tested with density and distribution equal to the training one while being much more accurate in the other cases. Our pretrained models and further material are available in our project page.
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In video surveillance as well as automotive applications, so-called fisheye cameras are often employed to capture a very wide angle of view. As such cameras depend on projections quite different from the classical perspective projection, the resulting fisheye image and video data correspondingly exhibits non-rectilinear image characteristics. Typical image and video processing algorithms, however, are not designed for these fisheye characteristics. To be able to develop and evaluate algorithms specifically adapted to fisheye images and videos, a corresponding test data set is therefore introduced in this paper. The first of those sequences were generated during the authors' own work on motion estimation for fish-eye videos and further sequences have gradually been added to create a more extensive collection. The data set now comprises synthetically generated fisheye sequences, ranging from simple patterns to more complex scenes, as well as fisheye video sequences captured with an actual fisheye camera. For the synthetic sequences, exact information on the lens employed is available, thus facilitating both verification and evaluation of any adapted algorithms. For the real-world sequences, we provide calibration data as well as the settings used during acquisition. The sequences are freely available via www.lms.lnt.de/fisheyedataset/.
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Capturing large fields of view with only one camera is an important aspect in surveillance and automotive applications, but the wide-angle fisheye imagery thus obtained exhibits very special characteristics that may not be very well suited for typical image and video processing methods such as motion estimation. This paper introduces a motion estimation method that adapts to the typical radial characteristics of fisheye video sequences by making use of an equisolid re-projection after moving part of the motion vector search into the perspective domain via a corresponding back-projection. By combining this approach with conventional translational motion estimation and compensation, average gains in luminance PSNR of up to 1.14 dB are achieved for synthetic fish-eye sequences and up to 0.96 dB for real-world data. Maximum gains for selected frame pairs amount to 2.40 dB and 1.39 dB for synthetic and real-world data, respectively.
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In the past few years, Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) has become a valuable solution to automatically learn efficient resource management strategies in complex networks. In many scenarios, the learning task is performed in the Cloud, while experience samples are generated directly by edge nodes or users. Therefore, the learning task involves some data exchange which, in turn, subtracts a certain amount of transmission resources from the system. This creates a friction between the need to speed up convergence towards an effective strategy, which requires the allocation of resources to transmit learning samples, and the need to maximize the amount of resources used for data plane communication, maximizing users' Quality of Service (QoS), which requires the learning process to be efficient, i.e., minimize its overhead. In this paper, we investigate this trade-off and propose a dynamic balancing strategy between the learning and data planes, which allows the centralized learning agent to quickly converge to an efficient resource allocation strategy while minimizing the impact on QoS. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms static allocation methods, converging to the optimal policy (i.e., maximum efficacy and minimum overhead of the learning plane) in the long run.
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Synthetic data generation has recently gained widespread attention as a more reliable alternative to traditional data anonymization. The involved methods are originally developed for image synthesis. Hence, their application to the typically tabular and relational datasets from healthcare, finance and other industries is non-trivial. While substantial research has been devoted to the generation of realistic tabular datasets, the study of synthetic relational databases is still in its infancy. In this paper, we combine the variational autoencoder framework with graph neural networks to generate realistic synthetic relational databases. We then apply the obtained method to two publicly available databases in computational experiments. The results indicate that real databases' structures are accurately preserved in the resulting synthetic datasets, even for large datasets with advanced data types.
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Head and neck cancers are the fifth most common cancer worldwide, and recently, analysis of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Computed Tomography (CT) images has been proposed to identify patients with a prognosis. Even though the results look promising, more research is needed to further validate and improve the results. This paper presents the work done by team MLC for the 2022 version of the HECKTOR grand challenge held at MICCAI 2022. For Task 1, the automatic segmentation task, our approach was, in contrast to earlier solutions using 3D segmentation, to keep it as simple as possible using a 2D model, analyzing every slice as a standalone image. In addition, we were interested in understanding how different modalities influence the results. We proposed two approaches; one using only the CT scans to make predictions and another using a combination of the CT and PET scans. For Task 2, the prediction of recurrence-free survival, we first proposed two approaches, one where we only use patient data and one where we combined the patient data with segmentations from the image model. For the prediction of the first two approaches, we used Random Forest. In our third approach, we combined patient data and image data using XGBoost. Low kidney function might worsen cancer prognosis. In this approach, we therefore estimated the kidney function of the patients and included it as a feature. Overall, we conclude that our simple methods were not able to compete with the highest-ranking submissions, but we still obtained reasonably good scores. We also got interesting insights into how the combination of different modalities can influence the segmentation and predictions.
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Camera pose estimation is a key step in standard 3D reconstruction pipelines that operate on a dense set of images of a single object or scene. However, methods for pose estimation often fail when only a few images are available because they rely on the ability to robustly identify and match visual features between image pairs. While these methods can work robustly with dense camera views, capturing a large set of images can be time-consuming or impractical. We propose SparsePose for recovering accurate camera poses given a sparse set of wide-baseline images (fewer than 10). The method learns to regress initial camera poses and then iteratively refine them after training on a large-scale dataset of objects (Co3D: Common Objects in 3D). SparsePose significantly outperforms conventional and learning-based baselines in recovering accurate camera rotations and translations. We also demonstrate our pipeline for high-fidelity 3D reconstruction using only 5-9 images of an object.
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Non-equilibrium chemistry is a key process in the study of the InterStellar Medium (ISM), in particular the formation of molecular clouds and thus stars. However, computationally it is among the most difficult tasks to include in astrophysical simulations, because of the typically high (>40) number of reactions, the short evolutionary timescales (about $10^4$ times less than the ISM dynamical time) and the characteristic non-linearity and stiffness of the associated Ordinary Differential Equations system (ODEs). In this proof of concept work, we show that Physics Informed Neural Networks (PINN) are a viable alternative to traditional ODE time integrators for stiff thermo-chemical systems, i.e. up to molecular hydrogen formation (9 species and 46 reactions). Testing different chemical networks in a wide range of densities ($-2< \log n/{\rm cm}^{-3}< 3$) and temperatures ($1 < \log T/{\rm K}< 5$), we find that a basic architecture can give a comfortable convergence only for simplified chemical systems: to properly capture the sudden chemical and thermal variations a Deep Galerkin Method is needed. Once trained ($\sim 10^3$ GPUhr), the PINN well reproduces the strong non-linear nature of the solutions (errors $\lesssim 10\%$) and can give speed-ups up to a factor of $\sim 200$ with respect to traditional ODE solvers. Further, the latter have completion times that vary by about $\sim 30\%$ for different initial $n$ and $T$, while the PINN method gives negligible variations. Both the speed-up and the potential improvement in load balancing imply that PINN-powered simulations are a very palatable way to solve complex chemical calculation in astrophysical and cosmological problems.
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