很少有细粒度的分类和人搜索作为独特的任务和文学作品,已经分别对待了它们。但是,仔细观察揭示了重要的相似之处:这两个任务的目标类别只能由特定的对象细节歧视;相关模型应概括为新类别,而在培训期间看不到。我们提出了一个适用于这两个任务的新型统一查询引导网络(QGN)。QGN由一个查询引导的暹罗引文和兴奋子网组成,该子网还重新进行了所有网络层的查询和画廊功能,一个查询实习的区域建议特定于特定于特定的本地化以及查询指导的相似性子网络子网本网络用于公制学习。QGN在最近的一些少数细颗粒数据集上有所改善,在幼崽上的其他技术优于大幅度。QGN还对人搜索Cuhk-Sysu和PRW数据集进行了竞争性执行,我们在其中进行了深入的分析。
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One of the common traits of past and present approaches for Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) is that they rely upon discrete labels drawn from a predefined linguistic inventory to classify predicate senses and their arguments. However, we argue this need not be the case. In this paper, we present an approach that leverages Definition Modeling to introduce a generalized formulation of SRL as the task of describing predicate-argument structures using natural language definitions instead of discrete labels. Our novel formulation takes a first step towards placing interpretability and flexibility foremost, and yet our experiments and analyses on PropBank-style and FrameNet-style, dependency-based and span-based SRL also demonstrate that a flexible model with an interpretable output does not necessarily come at the expense of performance. We release our software for research purposes at https://github.com/SapienzaNLP/dsrl.
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Automated synthesis of provably correct controllers for cyber-physical systems is crucial for deploying these systems in safety-critical scenarios. However, their hybrid features and stochastic or unknown behaviours make this synthesis problem challenging. In this paper, we propose a method for synthesizing controllers for Markov jump linear systems (MJLSs), a particular class of cyber-physical systems, that certifiably satisfy a requirement expressed as a specification in probabilistic computation tree logic (PCTL). An MJLS consists of a finite set of linear dynamics with unknown additive disturbances, where jumps between these modes are governed by a Markov decision process (MDP). We consider both the case where the transition function of this MDP is given by probability intervals or where it is completely unknown. Our approach is based on generating a finite-state abstraction which captures both the discrete and the continuous behaviour of the original system. We formalise such abstraction as an interval Markov decision process (iMDP): intervals of transition probabilities are computed using sampling techniques from the so-called "scenario approach", resulting in a probabilistically sound approximation of the MJLS. This iMDP abstracts both the jump dynamics between modes, as well as the continuous dynamics within the modes. To demonstrate the efficacy of our technique, we apply our method to multiple realistic benchmark problems, in particular, temperature control, and aerial vehicle delivery problems.
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Step-by-step reasoning approaches like chain-of-thought (CoT) have proved to be a very effective technique to induce reasoning capabilities in large language models. However, the success of the CoT approach depends primarily on model size, and often billion parameter-scale models are needed to get CoT to work. In this paper, we propose a knowledge distillation approach, that leverages the step-by-step CoT reasoning capabilities of larger models and distils these reasoning abilities into smaller models. Our approach Decompositional Distillation learns a semantic decomposition of the original problem into a sequence of subproblems and uses it to train two models: a) a problem decomposer that learns to decompose the complex reasoning problem into a sequence of simpler sub-problems and b) a problem solver that uses the intermediate subproblems to solve the overall problem. On a multi-step math word problem dataset (GSM8K), we boost the performance of GPT-2 variants up to 35% when distilled with our approach compared to CoT. We show that using our approach, it is possible to train a GPT-2-large model (775M) that can outperform a 10X larger GPT-3 (6B) model trained using CoT reasoning. Finally, we also demonstrate that our approach of problem decomposition can also be used as an alternative to CoT prompting, which boosts the GPT-3 performance by 40% compared to CoT prompts.
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Reduced order modeling methods are often used as a mean to reduce simulation costs in industrial applications. Despite their computational advantages, reduced order models (ROMs) often fail to accurately reproduce complex dynamics encountered in real life applications. To address this challenge, we leverage NeuralODEs to propose a novel ROM correction approach based on a time-continuous memory formulation. Finally, experimental results show that our proposed method provides a high level of accuracy while retaining the low computational costs inherent to reduced models.
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Distributed deep learning (DDL) systems strongly depend on network performance. Current electronic packet switched (EPS) network architectures and technologies suffer from variable diameter topologies, low-bisection bandwidth and over-subscription affecting completion time of communication and collective operations. We introduce a near-exascale, full-bisection bandwidth, all-to-all, single-hop, all-optical network architecture with nanosecond reconfiguration called RAMP, which supports large-scale distributed and parallel computing systems (12.8~Tbps per node for up to 65,536 nodes). For the first time, a custom RAMP-x MPI strategy and a network transcoder is proposed to run MPI collective operations across the optical circuit switched (OCS) network in a schedule-less and contention-less manner. RAMP achieves 7.6-171$\times$ speed-up in completion time across all MPI operations compared to realistic EPS and OCS counterparts. It can also deliver a 1.3-16$\times$ and 7.8-58$\times$ reduction in Megatron and DLRM training time respectively} while offering 42-53$\times$ and 3.3-12.4$\times$ improvement in energy consumption and cost respectively.
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Every automaton can be decomposed into a cascade of basic automata. This is the Prime Decomposition Theorem by Krohn and Rhodes. We show that cascades allow for describing the sample complexity of automata in terms of their components. In particular, we show that the sample complexity is linear in the number of components and the maximum complexity of a single component, modulo logarithmic factors. This opens to the possibility of learning automata representing large dynamical systems consisting of many parts interacting with each other. It is in sharp contrast with the established understanding of the sample complexity of automata, described in terms of the overall number of states and input letters, which implies that it is only possible to learn automata where the number of states is linear in the amount of data available. Instead our results show that one can learn automata with a number of states that is exponential in the amount of data available.
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The new wave of digitization induced by Industry 4.0 calls for ubiquitous and reliable connectivity to perform and automate industrial operations. 5G networks can afford the extreme requirements of heterogeneous vertical applications, but the lack of real data and realistic traffic statistics poses many challenges for the optimization and configuration of the network for industrial environments. In this paper, we investigate the network traffic data generated from a laser cutting machine deployed in a Trumpf factory in Germany. We analyze the traffic statistics, capture the dependencies between the internal states of the machine, and model the network traffic as a production state dependent stochastic process. The two-step model is proposed as follows: first, we model the production process as a multi-state semi-Markov process, then we learn the conditional distributions of the production state dependent packet interarrival time and packet size with generative models. We compare the performance of various generative models including variational autoencoder (VAE), conditional variational autoencoder (CVAE), and generative adversarial network (GAN). The numerical results show a good approximation of the traffic arrival statistics depending on the production state. Among all generative models, CVAE provides in general the best performance in terms of the smallest Kullback-Leibler divergence.
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Recent video+language datasets cover domains where the interaction is highly structured, such as instructional videos, or where the interaction is scripted, such as TV shows. Both of these properties can lead to spurious cues to be exploited by models rather than learning to ground language. In this paper, we present GrOunded footbAlL commentaries (GOAL), a novel dataset of football (or `soccer') highlights videos with transcribed live commentaries in English. As the course of a game is unpredictable, so are commentaries, which makes them a unique resource to investigate dynamic language grounding. We also provide state-of-the-art baselines for the following tasks: frame reordering, moment retrieval, live commentary retrieval and play-by-play live commentary generation. Results show that SOTA models perform reasonably well in most tasks. We discuss the implications of these results and suggest new tasks for which GOAL can be used. Our codebase is available at: https://gitlab.com/grounded-sport-convai/goal-baselines.
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Word order, an essential property of natural languages, is injected in Transformer-based neural language models using position encoding. However, recent experiments have shown that explicit position encoding is not always useful, since some models without such feature managed to achieve state-of-the art performance on some tasks. To understand better this phenomenon, we examine the effect of removing position encodings on the pre-training objective itself (i.e., masked language modelling), to test whether models can reconstruct position information from co-occurrences alone. We do so by controlling the amount of masked tokens in the input sentence, as a proxy to affect the importance of position information for the task. We find that the necessity of position information increases with the amount of masking, and that masked language models without position encodings are not able to reconstruct this information on the task. These findings point towards a direct relationship between the amount of masking and the ability of Transformers to capture order-sensitive aspects of language using position encoding.
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