语言模型既展示了定量的改进,又展示了新的定性功能,随着规模的增加。尽管它们具有潜在的变革性影响,但这些新能力的特征却很差。为了为未来的研究提供信息,为破坏性的新模型能力做准备,并改善社会有害的效果,至关重要的是,我们必须了解目前和近乎未来的能力和语言模型的局限性。为了应对这一挑战,我们介绍了超越模仿游戏基准(Big Bench)。 Big Bench目前由204个任务组成,由132家机构的442位作者贡献。任务主题是多样的,从语言学,儿童发展,数学,常识性推理,生物学,物理学,社会偏见,软件开发等等。 Big-Bench专注于被认为超出当前语言模型的功能的任务。我们评估了OpenAI的GPT型号,Google内部密集变压器体系结构和大型基础上的开关稀疏变压器的行为,跨越了数百万到数十亿个参数。此外,一个人类专家评估者团队执行了所有任务,以提供强大的基准。研究结果包括:模型性能和校准都随规模改善,但绝对的术语(以及与评估者的性能相比);在模型类中的性能非常相似,尽管带有稀疏性。逐渐和预测的任务通常涉及大量知识或记忆成分,而在临界规模上表现出“突破性”行为的任务通常涉及多个步骤或组成部分或脆性指标;社交偏见通常会随着含糊不清的环境而随着规模而增加,但这可以通过提示来改善。
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零/几次转移到看不见的服务是面向任务的对话研究中的一个关键挑战。架构引导的对话(SGD)数据集引入了一个范式,以使模型通过模式以零摄影的方式支持任何服务,该模型将服务API描述为自然语言的模型。我们通过设计SGD -X来探索对话系统对模式中语言变化的鲁棒性 - 一种基准,该基准扩展了SGD的语义上相似但风格相似但在每个模式上具有相似风格的变体。我们观察到,两种顶级状态跟踪模型无法通过模式变体概括,这些模型通过联合目标准确性和用于测量模式灵敏度的新型指标来衡量。此外,我们提出了一种简单的模型数据扩展方法,以改善模式鲁棒性。
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Virtual assistants such as Google Assistant, Alexa and Siri provide a conversational interface to a large number of services and APIs spanning multiple domains. Such systems need to support an ever-increasing number of services with possibly overlapping functionality. Furthermore, some of these services have little to no training data available. Existing public datasets for task-oriented dialogue do not sufficiently capture these challenges since they cover few domains and assume a single static ontology per domain. In this work, we introduce the the Schema-Guided Dialogue (SGD) dataset, containing over 16k multi-domain conversations spanning 16 domains. Our dataset exceeds the existing task-oriented dialogue corpora in scale, while also highlighting the challenges associated with building large-scale virtual assistants. It provides a challenging testbed for a number of tasks including language understanding, slot filling, dialogue state tracking and response generation. Along the same lines, we present a schema-guided paradigm for task-oriented dialogue, in which predictions are made over a dynamic set of intents and slots, provided as input, using their natural language descriptions. This allows a single dialogue system to easily support a large number of services and facilitates simple integration of new services without requiring additional training data. Building upon the proposed paradigm, we release a model for dialogue state tracking capable of zero-shot generalization to new APIs, while remaining competitive in the regular setting.
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Automation in farming processes is a growing field of research in both academia and industries. A considerable amount of work has been put into this field to develop systems robust enough for farming. Terrace farming, in particular, provides a varying set of challenges, including robust stair climbing methods and stable navigation in unstructured terrains. We propose the design of a novel autonomous terrace farming robot, Aarohi, that can effectively climb steep terraces of considerable heights and execute several farming operations. The design optimisation strategy for the overall mechanical structure is elucidated. Further, the embedded and software architecture along with fail-safe strategies are presented for a working prototype. Algorithms for autonomous traversal over the terrace steps using the scissor lift mechanism and performing various farming operations have also been discussed. The adaptability of the design to specific operational requirements and modular farm tools allow Aarohi to be customised for a wide variety of use cases.
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This paper proposes a self-supervised approach to learn universal facial representations from videos, that can transfer across a variety of facial analysis tasks such as Facial Attribute Recognition (FAR), Facial Expression Recognition (FER), DeepFake Detection (DFD), and Lip Synchronization (LS). Our proposed framework, named MARLIN, is a facial video masked autoencoder, that learns highly robust and generic facial embeddings from abundantly available non-annotated web crawled facial videos. As a challenging auxiliary task, MARLIN reconstructs the spatio-temporal details of the face from the densely masked facial regions which mainly include eyes, nose, mouth, lips, and skin to capture local and global aspects that in turn help in encoding generic and transferable features. Through a variety of experiments on diverse downstream tasks, we demonstrate MARLIN to be an excellent facial video encoder as well as feature extractor, that performs consistently well across a variety of downstream tasks including FAR (1.13% gain over supervised benchmark), FER (2.64% gain over unsupervised benchmark), DFD (1.86% gain over unsupervised benchmark), LS (29.36% gain for Frechet Inception Distance), and even in low data regime. Our codes and pre-trained models will be made public.
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The domain of joint vision-language understanding, especially in the context of reasoning in Visual Question Answering (VQA) models, has garnered significant attention in the recent past. While most of the existing VQA models focus on improving the accuracy of VQA, the way models arrive at an answer is oftentimes a black box. As a step towards making the VQA task more explainable and interpretable, our method is built upon the SOTA VQA framework by augmenting it with an end-to-end explanation generation module. In this paper, we investigate two network architectures, including Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Transformer decoder, as the explanation generator. Our method generates human-readable textual explanations while maintaining SOTA VQA accuracy on the GQA-REX (77.49%) and VQA-E (71.48%) datasets. Approximately 65.16% of the generated explanations are approved by humans as valid. Roughly 60.5% of the generated explanations are valid and lead to the correct answers.
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Large language models (LLMs) have been shown to be able to perform new tasks based on a few demonstrations or natural language instructions. While these capabilities have led to widespread adoption, most LLMs are developed by resource-rich organizations and are frequently kept from the public. As a step towards democratizing this powerful technology, we present BLOOM, a 176B-parameter open-access language model designed and built thanks to a collaboration of hundreds of researchers. BLOOM is a decoder-only Transformer language model that was trained on the ROOTS corpus, a dataset comprising hundreds of sources in 46 natural and 13 programming languages (59 in total). We find that BLOOM achieves competitive performance on a wide variety of benchmarks, with stronger results after undergoing multitask prompted finetuning. To facilitate future research and applications using LLMs, we publicly release our models and code under the Responsible AI License.
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Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a condition in infants where the femoral head is incorrectly located in the hip joint. We propose a deep learning algorithm for segmenting key structures within ultrasound images, employing this to calculate Femoral Head Coverage (FHC) and provide a screening diagnosis for DDH. To our knowledge, this is the first study to automate FHC calculation for DDH screening. Our algorithm outperforms the international state of the art, agreeing with expert clinicians on 89.8% of our test images.
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Modern retrieval system often requires recomputing the representation of every piece of data in the gallery when updating to a better representation model. This process is known as backfilling and can be especially costly in the real world where the gallery often contains billions of samples. Recently, researchers have proposed the idea of Backward Compatible Training (BCT) where the new representation model can be trained with an auxiliary loss to make it backward compatible with the old representation. In this way, the new representation can be directly compared with the old representation, in principle avoiding the need for any backfilling. However, followup work shows that there is an inherent tradeoff where a backward compatible representation model cannot simultaneously maintain the performance of the new model itself. This paper reports our ``not-so-surprising'' finding that adding extra dimensions to the representation can help here. However, we also found that naively increasing the dimension of the representation did not work. To deal with this, we propose Backward-compatible Training with a novel Basis Transformation ($BT^2$). A basis transformation (BT) is basically a learnable set of parameters that applies an orthonormal transformation. Such a transformation possesses an important property whereby the original information contained in its input is retained in its output. We show in this paper how a BT can be utilized to add only the necessary amount of additional dimensions. We empirically verify the advantage of $BT^2$ over other state-of-the-art methods in a wide range of settings. We then further extend $BT^2$ to other challenging yet more practical settings, including significant change in model architecture (CNN to Transformers), modality change, and even a series of updates in the model architecture mimicking the evolution of deep learning models.
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The SNMMI Artificial Intelligence (SNMMI-AI) Summit, organized by the SNMMI AI Task Force, took place in Bethesda, MD on March 21-22, 2022. It brought together various community members and stakeholders from academia, healthcare, industry, patient representatives, and government (NIH, FDA), and considered various key themes to envision and facilitate a bright future for routine, trustworthy use of AI in nuclear medicine. In what follows, essential issues, challenges, controversies and findings emphasized in the meeting are summarized.
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